The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) is a voluntary private-sector organization, established in the United States, dedicated to providing guidance to executive management and governance entities on critical aspects of organizational governance, business ethics, internal control, enterprise risk management, fraud, and financial reporting. COSO has established a common internal control model against which companies and organizations may assess their control systems.

The COSO framework involves several key concepts:



The COSO framework defines internal control as a process, affected by an entity’s board of directors, management and other personnel, designed to provide "reasonable assurance" regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories: