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In re Applications for RENEWAL OF STANDARD BROADCAST AND TELEVISION LICENSES FOR OKLAHOMA, KANSAS, AND NEBRASKA

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION

14 F.C.C.2d 2 (1968)

May 29, 1968


[*2]  With respect to the staff review of the June 1, 1968, group of Standard Broadcast and Television applications for Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, prior to their renewal under delegated authority, the Commission, by Commissioners Hyde, chairman; Bartley, Lee, Cox, Loevinger, and Johnson, with Commissioners Cox and Johnson dissenting and issuing statements, rejected proposals: (1) That the staff be instructed to write the stations in the June first renewal group proposing less than 5 percent news, 1 percent public affairs, and/or 5 percent public affairs and other, unless there are extenuating circumstances reflected in the particular station's application; (2) that the staff be instructed to write to KWTV, KOCO-TV, KTUL-TV, and KSWO-TV, inquiring as to any justification or explanation they may have for their minimal proposals in news, in public affairs, and in local live programming in prime time; and (3) that the staff be instructed to develop procedures, including a check list based on the one used in the study of the Oklahoma stations, for the purpose of identifying and bringing to the Commission those renewal applications in each group reflecting the lowest levels of past and proposed performance in the areas of news, public affairs, and other programming as well as in local live programming generally and in prime time.  n1

n1 For the dissenting opinion of Commissioners Cox and Johnson on the June 1, 1968, renewal group generally, see page    .


[*3]  PREFACE

The basis of American commercial broadcasting is local service -- local news, enlightened presentation of local controversial issues, local talent, and a community dialog.  On this foundation we have built a system of seven thousand five hundred local radio and television stations, to which we have contributed 95 percent of the most valuable frequency space owned by the public.  After a 3-month evaluation of the programming of a sampling of American radio and television stations we must report that this foundation is shaky indeed.

This is perhaps the most serious of the conclusions we, FCC Commissioners Kenneth A. Cox and Nicholas Johnson, have drawn from our review of the license renewal forms of this sampling of the 101 Oklahoma radio and television stations.

We have undertaken this study to evaluate a sampling of American communities and the role of broadcasting and other mass media in the lives of their citizens, and to test the validity of the local service assumption of our present national system of commercial broadcasting; to compile relevant data about broadcasting stations for a given State, and as a model for other States; to report and analyze the ownership of local outlets of information and opinion in this country, and uncover any patterns of statewide domination; to examine the adequacy and practical impact of the Commission's requirement that licensees survey the needs and interests of their listeners or viewers, and consider alternative ways of encouraging local participation in programming judgments; to review the Commission's procedures for processing the information contained in its current license renewal form.

The results of our study are extremely disquieting.

We have found that the programming product of these local stations is, in greatest measure, television entertainment from New York and Los Angeles, nationally distributed recorded music entertainment for radio, and nationally distributed news for radio and television from networks and wire services; that there is little, if any, relevant information about local radio and television stations usefully collected, readily available and widely used by local citizens; that in spite of the numbers of newspapers and broadcast outlets, the control of the greatest share of audience, profit, and political power lies in the hands of very few; that the local surveys are, almost without exception, useless to the broadcaster, the community, and the Commission, and that the listening and viewing public is almost totally excluded from, and uninformed about its rights in, the station's program selection process; [*4]  that the Commission is making virtually no use of the information it is now receiving from licensees in the renewal forms.

In the report which follows we elaborate these findings and present our compilation of data about broadcasting in this typical State of Oklahoma.

Radio and television station owners operate under licensed authority of the Federal Communications Commission, as provided by act of Congress.  They are licensed to serve the public interest, convenience and necessity.  Every 3 years they must request that their license be renewed by the FCC under the same standard.  The licenses of all broadcasters in a given State expire at the same time.  They must file their renewal applications 90 days prior to that date.  The filing date for Oklahoma stations (as well as for Nebraska and Kansas) was March 1, 1968.  By June 1 virtually all their renewals will be granted.  (The renewal dates for all other States are contained in appendix B.)

In previous instances of statewide license renewals the two of us have dissented to the Commission's rather cursory examination of the stations' performance.  (See, for example, Renewal of Standard Broadcast Station Licenses, 7 FCC 2d 122, 130, 9 P&F Radio Reg. 2d 687, 695 (1967), and License Renewals (Iowa and Missouri), FCC Public Notice 13087, Feb. 20, 1968 (1968).) We have indicated we believe stations offering, for example, less than 5 percent news, 1 percent public affairs, or 5 percent public affairs and all other non-entertainment programming, ought to be sent a letter of inquiry, or set for hearing.  Perhaps such stations could offer valid explanations of why such performance serves the public interest in their community.  We did not believe the bare facts before the Commission, however, offered valid basis for such a finding.

On this occasion we sought to make a more thorough evaluation.  We selected Oklahoma for this purpose only because we believed it typical, and because its renewals were next in line when we contemplated this study.  We had not encountered either praise or complaints to indicate Oklahoma station owners as above or below average.  The State ranks 19th in area, 27th in population, and contains both the Nation's 37th largest market (Oklahoma City) and some of its most sparsely settled territory (Cimarron County averages but three people per square mile).  Because of the location of its major cities, most of the State's population receives its radio and television programming from Oklahoma stations (unlike some States, such as New Jersey, which receives virtually all of its programming from Philadelphia and New York City stations).  For all of these reasons, among others, we believe the State to have been appropriate for our purposes.

We offer this collection of data, our analysis, conclusions, and recommendations to any who may find them useful.  It has been of great help to us in evaluating the Oklahoma license renewals before us.  But it has been more than that for us, and we hope for others.  We hope its principal value will be as a case study, an illustration, of the kind of collection and analysis that can be done by others, in and out of the Commission, for license renewals in other States, [*5] our colleagues on the Commission, and its staff; universities, foundations, and other public and private institutions presently engaged in evaluation of our Nation's telecommunications system; individual broadcasters, and their associates and associations; public-spirited individuals and organizations throughout the country -- as well as in Oklahoma.

If it is found to have this kind of broader value, if others are able to build upon this beginning and improve it, and if through that building American broadcasting inches a wee bit closer to its ultimate potential, our efforts will have been repaid many fold.  [*6]

CONTENTS                                                                                                         Page

Preface                                                                                                                3

Introduction, Summary and Recommendations                                                    7

How and Why Our Government Built the Broadcasting Industry                         7

Recent Trends in FCC Enforcement of the Communications Act                        8

Why the Nation Needs Local Broadcast Service                                                 10

Broadcasting in Oklahoma: A Summary                                                               12

Conclusions and Recommendation                                                                     13

Television Programming in Oklahoma                                                                 16

Applying the Standards: News and Public Affairs                                                17

Network Clearances                                                                                            17

Amount of Local Programming                                                                             18

The Local Programs                                                                                            19

Preemption: The Theory                                                                                      20

Preemption: The Practice                                                                                    21

Preemptions: An Evaluation                                                                                 22

Local Programming Other Than News                                                                 23

Radio                                                                                                                   24

Renewal Procedures                                                                                           24

Conclusion                                                                                                           25

Oklahoma Television Stations' Checklists                                                           26

Sample Radio Form (KTOK)                                                                                32

Media Ownership in Oklahoma                                                                            33

Note on Letters to Broadcasters                                                                          37

Note on Sources                                                                                                  39

Broadcasting in Selected Cities of Oklahoma                                                      40

Introduction                                                                                                          40

Ardmore                                                                                                               41

Duncan                                                                                                                45

Enid                                                                                                                      48

Guymon                                                                                                               52

Holdenville                                                                                                           55

Lawton                                                                                                                 57

McAlester                                                                                                             63

Muskogee                                                                                                            67

Oklahoma City                                                                                                     72

Sayre and Ada                                                                                                     98

Tahlequah                                                                                                            101

Tulsa                                                                                                                    104

Appendix A: Letters to Oklahoma Broadcasters                                                   122

Letter to Oklahoma Radio Stations                                                                      122

Letter to Oklahoma Television Stations                                                               123

Letter to Networks                                                                                                124

Second Letter to Oklahoma Broadcasters                                                           124

Appendix B: License Renewal Expiration

Dates for Each State                                                                                            125

 [*7]  INTRODUCTION, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

"When I'm drivin' in my car, When the man comes on the radio, He's tellin' me more and more About some useless information * * *.  Supposed to fire my imagination?  * * * I can't get no satisfaction !" The Rolling Stones, "Satisfaction"

Most people believe that radio and television are like the weather.  Bad weather exists.  But it is no one's fault.  Accordingly, nothing can be done about it.  The same is widely believed to be true of radio and television.  Often broadcast programming appears unsatisfactory, either in individual cases or in general.  But the prevailing assumption is that broadcasting in America got to be the way it is through some ineluctable and mysterious process, that it was not the product of any identifiable individual, group, or institution, that no one in particular is to blame, and that, accordingly, nothing can be done about it.

But this widespread notion is wrong.  If something basic is amiss with broadcasting, someone is at fault.  That someone is the United States Government.

How and Why Our Government Built the Broadcasting Industry

The American broadcasting industry was not structured by the economic laws of the market, nor by the imperatives of technology.  It was built by Congress and the Federal Communications Commission.  The existence of every television and radio station is owed to those bodies.  Policies which they adopted in the name of the American public determined how many stations there should be, where they should be located, and which individuals and corporations should have the profitable privilege of operating them.

To a very great extent programming, which is the product of the broadcasting industry, is also a result of those Government policies.  Different policies would have led to different results.  For example, Congress and the FCC need not have based their scheme on the concept of local transmitting stations.  Had they instead emphasized national "superpower" stations, there would be many fewer radio and TV stations than there are now.  But no geographical area of the country would be without at least some broadcast reception service, as many sparsely populated areas are today.  And there might be much greater variety in the kinds of programming available to the people.  Similarly, Government policy determined that programs should be paid for exclusively by advertisers.  Had individual viewers and listeners been permitted to compete with advertisers for the right to finance, and therefore select, the programs aired by broadcast stations, then there could be greater variety in programming.  Finally, FCC policy forbids cable television systems to pipe distant broadcast signals into the top 100 markets.  But for this artificial support, viewer choice might be much greater.

Congress created the present scheme in order to promote specific  [*8]  policies and specific kinds of programs.  A system of locally based stations was deemed necessary to insure that broadcasting would be attentive to the specific needs and interests of each local community.  It was also considered a guarantee to local groups and leaders that they would have adequate opportunity for expression.  Ultimately, our broadcasting system is premised on concern that the very identity of local States and cities might be destroyed by a mass communications system with an exclusively national focus.

In order to make sure that these objectives were realized, Congress decreed that broadcast licenses should expire after 3 years.  On their expiration, it instructed the FCC to review the past and proposed performance of the licensee to see whether renewal would serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity.  As defined by Congress, and refined by the FCC, the public interest has always been understood to require licensees to offer some "balance" in their program format.  To serve the public interest, it is necessary for broadcasting to answer to minority as well as majority interests, and to provide time for information and discussion of national and, especially, local issues of public importance.  These goals have been faithfully reflected by each of the landmark declarations of policy which the FCC has issued since its birth in 1934.

Recent Trends in FCC Enforcement of the Communications Act

Most recent among the important FCC policy statements regarding program regulation was its 1960 Report and Statement of Policy Re: Commission en banc Programming Inquiry, in which the Commission vigorously reaffirmed the obligation of licensees --
* * * to take the necessary steps to inform themselves of the real needs and interests of the areas they serve, and to provide programming which in fact constitutes a diligent effort, in good faith, to provide for those needs and interests.

The 1960 Policy Statement emphasized that empirical surveys and personal contacts were the preferred ways in which the licensee should apprize himself of the particular services he needed to render the citizens of his coverage area.

In 1962 and 1963, the Commission undertook two on-the-scene inquiries into the quality of local public service provided by television stations in selected metropolitan areas.  Commissioner Lee was dispatched to Chicago; Chairman Henry went to Omaha.  Both Commissioners held public hearings in the cities they visited.  Their purpose was to provide a forum for the public to submit information on local needs and to voice opinions about whether these needs were being met.

But after the Chicago and Omaha inquiries, which showed that metropolitan TV stations originated relatively little programming of their own, and that what local programming they did put on consisted mostly of news, weather, and sports, interest in local service flagged at the FCC.  In 1965, the Commission abandoned a policy, begun in 1962, of deferring action on renewal petitions and instructed its staff not to collect any more information about local live programming practices.

 [*9]  Now, in 1968, in spite of new renewal forms, the situation stands about where it stood in 1965.  The Commission has not repudiated its commitments for the record.  It has simply declined to enforce them in practice.

The process of review remains.  But it is a ritual in which no actual review takes place.  Every 2 months, a geographical block of broadcast license renewal applications are presented to the Commission's staff.  Each batch of renewals contains all the licenses within an area of up to three States.  The licensees file their answers to lengthy forms.  (A sample, the television form, is included as appendix C.) They specify the percentage of their programming which will be devoted to news, to public affairs, and to other matters exclusive of entertainment and sports.  They submit logs of the programs they carried during 7 days from the preceding year selected at random by the staff -- the "composite week." The licensees describe the more-or-less unscientific method they have employed to divine the needs of their community.  These needs are often not specified.  When specified, they often have little relation to the programming decisions the licensee has made.

This entire ritual, which is a burden on broadcasters and a boon for the Washington, D.C. communications bar, has no real point.  It is a sham.  The Commission staff, acting on delegated authority, routinely grants all the renewal applications except for the few whose draftsmen were inexperienced and hence made technical mistakes in filling them out.  Engineering and financial deficiencies revealed by the applications, survey deficiencies, high commercial levels, and certain unresolved complaints are also causes for delaying a grant.  But programming deficiencies, even the most flagrant indifference to the local service obligations imposed by the Communications Act, raise no eyebrows.

The Commissioners themselves play almost literally no role at all.  We simply note that the staff has completed its processing of the applications, doing little more than nod to the sketchy memoranda as they pass our desks.  Grass-roots organizations from the communities themselves rarely participate; what efforts have been attempted in this vein have not been welcomed by the Commission or its staff.

We do not believe this state of affairs serves the public.  Nor, we believe, does it serve the Federal Communications Commission.  Certainly it does the Commission no good to have the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit declare that "The theory that the Commission can effectively represent the listener interests in a renewal proceeding * * * is no longer a valid assumption which stands up under the realities of actual experience." Certainly the interests of the broadcasting industry are no better served when the same distinguished court remarks, "After nearly 5 decades of operation the broadcast industry does not seem to have grasped the simple fact that a broadcast license is a public trust subject to termination for breach of duty."

Broadcasters receive from the Government a license which constitutes, especially in the case of television, a grant of great power and wealth, "a license to print money," as commercial television franchises are termed in Great Britain.  The television industry averages  [*10]  about 100 percent return on depreciated tangible investment and about 40 percent on gross revenues.  These revenues come from advertisers, who can profitably reach the public through the broadcasters' channels.  The Government does not grant or preserve this profitable monopoly just in order to indulge the private interests of its licensees.  In exchange for its generosity, the public, through its Government, expects its licensees to program not simply to maximize profits, but also to provide service to community needs, even when profits are reduced somewhat thereby.  In view of the great profitability of most broadcast stations, this obligation can seem a burden only to the greedy.

Having erected this great structure on the keystone of local service, we think it absurd for the Federal Communications Commission to let the system putter off on its own merry way, without ever taking a look to see how it is working, or even to see if it is working at all.
For if the actual programming of broadcasters is as devoid of concern about local expression and local service as is the Commission's renewal procedure, then the FCC should halt the pretense.  We should tell Congress that local service may have been a fine idea in 1934, but it is simply not worth administering in 1968.  We should recommend that Congress design a different system, one which would not entail the bother of the present one, and which would not involve its substantial economic and social costs to the public.  Such notions have occurred to numerous distinguished academic and other critics of the present system of broadcasting.  They are, no doubt, being considered by those institutions which are undertaking comprehensive evaluations of the Nation's communications system and its communications policies.

Why the Nation Needs Local Broadcast Service

Personally, the two of us do not believe that the system should be scrapped.  We believe that local service is a value of high import, and that the local station is an appropriate mode for its realization.  The notion of a broadcast station serving as a focus for communication among the elements of a community and for confrontation with its problems is not out of date.  Today, America's greatest needs are local needs.  Virtually every city in this country has found itself engulfed by incipient rebellion.  What these cities discovered, in effect, was that a substantial minority of their residents had lived in the city, but had never been part of the community.  They discovered that there had quite literally been no communication between the blacks and whites of their jurisdiction.

The future of this country hinges on the ability of individual cities to create communication where it has never existed before.  Only local media can serve that need.  And indeed, in large part only local broadcast stations can serve that need.  For polls show that most Americans get most of their information about public affairs from radio and television.  For many Americans, if it is not on radio or television, it might as well not have happened at all.

As a consequence of the increasing role of broadcasting in shaping the people's consciousness of affairs, broadcasting has become more decisive than ever in shaping the course of policy.  The Constitution  [*11] protects our citizens' right of petition.  But increasingly, today, citizens know that political action comes not from petitioning one's Government but from petitioning one's media.  A community's agenda for action can be found, everyday, on the front pages of its newspapers, in the content of its drive-time radio newscasts, and on the prime-time news and public affairs programs of its television stations.  Those who have proposals for action must reach the media before they reach the people or the Government.  They need the media to put their needs in the forefront of the community's consciousness.

The greatest challenge before the American people today is the challenge of restoring and reinvigorating local democracy.  That challenge cannot be met without a working system of local broadcast media actively serving the needs of each community for information about its affairs, serving the interests of all members of the community, and allowing all to confront the listening public with their problems and their proposals.

In sum, we think the theory on which the American system of broadcasting is based is sound, as sound in 1968 as it was in 1934.  It is the practice which concerns us.  Not that we are convinced that most, or even many, broadcasters shirk their local service obligations.  On the contrary, the trade press of the broadcasting industry is increasingly filled with reports of the new and imaginative ventures undertaken by broadcasters everywhere to meet the challenge of serving their communities, especially with respect to the present crises of race relations and local democracy.  Our concern stems from the fact that we learn more from the trade press than we do from the Commission's own procedures.  The Commission has indicated its disinterest in getting information about the performance of its licensees, and as a consequence the two of us share in its ignorance.  This concerns us greatly.

In a time when the role of local service seems so critical, and when, paradoxically, this basic concept faces increasing challenge from critics and from the pressures of technological change, it has seemed to us vital to get an accurate fix on how our traditional system of local broadcasting is working in practice.

We have decided to satisfy our need to inform ourselves by undertaking a study of broadcasting in a single State. Oklahoma is the State we selected, because it seemed a typical State, which was primarily served by broadcast signals originating within its borders, and because its licenses come before the Commission at a convenient date, namely on June 1, 1968.  As a result of our study, hereafter reported in detail, we have made recommendations to the full Commission for action regarding the group of licenses before us.  We have also made suggestions of a more general nature, regarding changes in regulatory policy which we believe meritorious of consideration.

Contained within the report and its appendices will be found most of the basic data publicly available about broadcasting within the State of Oklahoma.  There are city-by-city descriptions of 11 communities and the programming available to them.  Information is provided about the stations: call letters, power, location, ownership, and so forth.  We have indicated the out-of-city signals which can be received in the community in question.  There is reference to local newspapers,  [*12]  and some national magazine circulation figures.  There is a separate section discussing concentration of control of media ownership statewide.  We have evaluated television programming separately.  We have discussed sources of information -- and "the letters." In short, we have tried to bring together in one document both our own analysis of broadcasting in Oklahoma, and the raw data from which others may prepare their own evaluation.  We believe our Nation is healthier to the extent this kind of information and analysis are made widely available to the American people.  We hope the example provided by this single effort will stimulate the imagination of others to do more, and different, and better, work of this character.

Broadcasting in Oklahoma: A summary

The basic objective of our study has been to ascertain how Oklahoma broadcast licensees fashion their programming to the specific needs of their individual communities.  In theory, this is also the basic objective of the arduous process through which the Federal Communications Commission goes whenever it determines whether to renew a group of broadcast licenses.  In fact, as we have mentioned above, a majority of our colleagues do not regard it as the Commission's proper role to give serious scrutiny to the performance of applicants before granting their request for renewal.  Hence, we have undertaken this comprehensive survey on our own initiative.

The results of our study are now in.  We find these results extremely unsettling.  Previous Commission studies of the performance of local broadcast stations, especially the Omaha and Chicago inquiries of 1962 and 1963, had revealed that local stations rely predominantly on network and other nonlocal sources for programming.  We did not expect our analysis to show a markedly different pattern.  Nevertheless, we were unprepared for what we have found.
Our principal conclusion is this: As far as Oklahoma broadcasting is concerned, the concept of local service is largely a myth.  With a few exceptions, Oklahoma stations provide almost literally no programming that can meaningfully be described as "local expression." They provide very little that can be considered tailored to specific needs of their individual communities.

This pervasive feature of Oklahoma broadcasting, as well as several other facets of the situation which fell within the scope of our study, are elaborated in detail in the city-by-city analyses and supplementary notes and appendices which form the bulk of this report.  Highlights of the report, of its major factual findings, conclusions, and recommendations, are recorded below.
Here is what we discovered about the quantity and quality of local service in Oklahoma:

Of the 10 commercial television stations which submitted renewal applications in the instant proceeding (which take in a total of more than $16 million in gross revenues annually), only one station devotes as much as 2 hours a week to programs which can be classified as "local public affairs" (out of 105 to 134 hours per week of programming).  Two stations devote between 1 and 2 hours to local public affairs.  Six stations carry less than 1 hour.  Two stations carry none at all.

[*13]  Three of the TV stations carry less than 8 hours of news per week.

There is not in the entire State a single regularly scheduled prime time program devoted to presentation, analysis, or discussion of controversial issues of public importance in the State or in the community.

There is not in the State a single station which carries as much as 1 hour per week of locally originated programming in the prime viewing hours, other than news, weather, and sports.

Radio, although a fairly significant source of news, and not infrequently of local news, provides almost literally no public affairs service at all other than news.  With but a handful of exceptions, Oklahoma radio stations do not offer even a token effort to serve as a forum for discussion of local issues of public importance.

We do not construe these facts necessarily as an indictment of the broadcasters of this particular State; it is unlikely that their performance differs greatly from the performance of broadcasters in other States.  It may well be that disinterest in local service by broadcasters and by the Commission accurately reflects popular interests.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

What we do see as the necessary conclusion of our Oklahoma study is this: Either the Commission and its licensees must make local service a reality, or else consideration will have to be given to revising our commitment to the concept of the local station.

That is the major conclusion we have drawn from our study of broadcasting in Oklahoma.  In addition, we have offered the following conclusions and recommendations for the consideration of the Commission and the public.

First, with respect to Commission action pertaining to the renewal of broadcast licenses for Oklahoma television and radio stations: although the local service offerings of virtually all the licensees we have examined are sparse, some records are such that we believe that the Commission ought not renew certain licenses until more information is obtained from the licensees.  We would send letters of inquiry to the following licensees:

Television Stations

KWTV (Oklahoma City) should explain why it has been able to broadcast only 30 minutes of public affairs programs weekly, none of which is aired in prime time, and why it preempted regular programs only three times in the preceding 12 months.

KOCO-TV (Oklahoma City) should explain why it has carried only 1.8 percent public affairs programming and has only preempted regular programs for special public affairs broadcasts twice in the last 12 months.

KTUL (Tulsa) should explain why it broadcasts a total of less than 6 hours of news programs per week.

KSWO (Lawton) should explain why it programs less than 8 hours of news per week, no local public affairs programs per week at all, why it did not preempt regular programming once during the past 12 months, and why it proposes absolutely no other non-entertainment programming.

Radio Stations

KVYL (Holdenville), that city's only local broadcast station, proposes less than 5 percent news, 1.23 percent public affairs, and 18.9 percent other than entertainment and sports.  Examination of its program logs shows that most of the 18.9 percent "other" is religious music which is classified as religious programming.  We would inquire about the low amount of proposed news.

 [*14]  KBYE (Oklahoma City) proposed 1 percent news, 11.1 percent public affairs, and 37.6 percent other than entertainment and sports.  KBYE claims to be an ethnically oriented station serving minority audiences in Oklahoma City.  Almost all of its public affairs and other programming is religious music or syndicated public affairs programming.  KBYE has no regularly scheduled newscast.  We would inquire about the adequacy of the proposed 1 percent news.  We would also ask for a more thorough documentation of KBYE's survey of the audience it proposes to serve.

KTLQ-FM (Tahlequah) is an FM station associated with the only other station in Tahlequah.  KTLQ (AM) proposes 11.3 percent news, 4 percent public affairs and 3.9 percent other.  KTLQ-FM proposes 1.7 percent news, 0.8 percent public affairs, and 0.8 percent other.  We would inquire as to why the FM station, when engaged in a commendable effort to provide a nonduplicated service, did not, however, provide at least the AM's minimal news, public affairs, and other programming for its FM audience.

KMUS (Muskogee) proposes 13.2 percent news, 0.67 percent public affairs, and 3.6 percent other.  We would inquire as to why such a small amount of public affairs (55 minutes a week) is adequate to serve the public interest in this community.

KTMC (McAlester) proposes 12.83 percent news,.09 percent public affairs, and 4.3 percent other.  We would inquire about the low amount of public affairs.

Similar inquiries regarding failure to meet minimum standards that most other Oklahoma licensees propose to meet would be made to KCCO, Lawton (0.3 percent public affairs); KTOW, Sand Springs (0.5 percent public affairs); KELI, Tulsa (0.9 percent public affairs); KTOK, Oklahoma City (0.6 percent public affairs); KLPR, Oklahoma City (0.51 percent public affairs); KOCY-FM, Oklahoma City (2.0 percent other); WNAD, Norman (2.0 percent other); and KAKC-FM, Tulsa (0.6 percent other -- associated with KAKC, Tulsa).

Second, with respect to Commission renewal procedures, in order to enable the Commissioners themselves to participate meaningfully in the processing of renewal applications, we recommend that the staff be instructed to prepare checklists for each individual station on whose application the Commission must act.  The checklist should include:

1.  Data as to revenues and cash flow (for Commissioners' use only);

2.  Amounts of programming other than entertainment or sports by percentage of the weekly regular format, by hours of the week, by portions of the day, and by origin (local, network, recorded);

3.  List of special programs which pre-empted regularly scheduled programs during the preceding months indicating, in addition to the date, time, and duration of the program, its origin (network, local, or recorded), and whether of a "public affairs" nature;

4.  Percentage of time for commercials, and number of hours containing over 18 (for radio) or 16 (for television) minutes of commercial time.

Third, we have discovered an uncommon and, we believe, dangerous degree of concentration of control over broadcast and other mass media in Oklahoma.  Although 73 separate firms control broadcast licenses in the State, the top four firms accounted for 56 percent of the revenue and 88 percent of the income of the totals earned by all 73 firms in 1966.  The leader among these four top firms is part of a galaxy of interests owned by the Gaylord family.  This family also controls the two leading newspapers in Oklahoma City (the State capital and largest city) as well as four additional television stations in other major markets, two of which are in nearby Texas.  They publish in addition an agricultural monthly magazine with a paid circulation of nearly 500,000 in Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas.  Accordingly, we recommend, as we have often on many past occasions, that the Commission  [*15]  be wary of permitting so many mass communications outlets to accumulate in the hands of a single organization.

Fourth, we believe the Commission should consider economic resources in setting standards for local service.  In spite of WKY's remarkable preeminence as a source of information to the citizens of Oklahoma's leading metropolitan area, and to the State as a whole, the local service provided by the broadcast outlets controlled by this combine is not outstanding.  The company's television station, WKY-TV, does provide somewhat more local programming than any other station in the State.  But its lead is not significant, and the level of its performance in this regard is so low that its superiority is not in itself a cause for great self-satisfaction or praise.  The company's radio station, WKY-AM, by far the leading station in the city and the State in revenues, broadcasts a percentage, of news and public affairs programming that is only about average for the broadcasters in the State.  Because of the power and financial capacity of WKY and WKY-TV, and because of the great news-gathering resources of the parent organization, we think these stations could make a far greater contribution to community public needs and interests than they are presently providing.

We think it unrealistic if not unfair to impose on small and marginal radio stations the same requirements for local expression and service imposed on a combine as powerful and wealthy as that represented by these two jointly owned stations.  Accordingly, we recommend that the Commission consider the promulgation of policies which relate the amount of time and resources which a licensee is expected to invest in news and public affairs to his financial ability to make such investments.

Fifth, we have noted the great difference between the very small number of broadcast and other outlets serving small communities, and the relatively large number of outlets serving major metropolitan areas, such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa.  Neither Commission policy nor licensee practice seems to allow for this difference.  There is no marked difference between the amount of local service programming carried by major market stations and stations licensed to small towns and cities.  We recommend, therefore, that the Commission consider the adoption of a flexible concept of local service, which would allow for the different informational and expressional needs of small communities and large cities.

Sixth, we have noted that radio and television seem to play somewhat distinct roles as outlets for information and the presentation analysis, and discussion of controversial issues of public importance.  We recommend that the Commission consider adopting different standards for defining the local service obligations of radio station licensees and television station licensees.  In view of the increase in the number of radio signals in metropolitan areas, and of the tendency of each radio station to appeal to specific fractions of the listening audience, the Commission should consider whether to evaluate licensee performance on the basis of the range of services offered by all the stations in a given major market, rather than on a station-by-station basis.  In this event, of course, the Commission and its licensees would  [*16] have to evolve other measures of the local service responsibilities of broadcasters to invest money and time in the needs of their local communities.

Seventh, we recommend that the Commission make the effort to make information, such as that we have assembled here, widely available to the American people, and otherwise encourage more meaningful surveys and other efforts to involve the public in the program selection process.

We believe that adoption by the Commission of measures such as those we have proposed, if seriously enforced, would lead to a reinvigoration of local service by broadcast stations.  In that event, broadcasting in America would come nearer to realizing the great promise and vision which underlie the traditional concern of Congress and the FCC for promoting and protecting the local broadcast station as the basis of the system.

But, we hasten to add, if the broadcasting industry and the FCC do not breathe life into the concept of local service, then there may be a little basis in reason for preserving our present system.  This is not an unreal possibility.  Technological and even political winds of change are beginning to whistle through the world of communications.  It is now clear that television and radio systems could be fashioned which would emphasize national and regional outlets more than the present system does.  Such systems might guarantee to all parts of the Nation a more variegated, higher quality service than is presently available to those within reach of the thousands of stations licensed to individual towns and cities.  Local service is the only basis for policies designed to foster UHF growth, to regulate cable television, to refuse to increase the power of today's 50,000-w clear-channel AM stations, and in general to protect local stations against a transformation of the broadcasting system.  If local service does not in fact play a significant role in the operation of the present system, traditional policies may be senseless and they may in addition turn out to be surprisingly short of life.

Television Programming in Oklahoma

One of the purposes of our special study of certain of the pending Oklahoma renewal applications was to try to develop processing standards which we could recommend for use by the staff in handling future renewals.  While we haven't had time to develop our ideas with respect to this matter completely, we do have some recommendations which we would like to make at this time.  They require our review of what we have found to be television programming in Oklahoma at this time.

We have chosen television for this purpose because television plays a special role in American broadcasting today as the principal form of family evening entertainment and information, because the number of television stations was far more manageable, and because we had to start somewhere.  We believe the same effort should be made to develop standards for evaluating radio programming.

Following this text are summaries with respect to the television stations in Oklahoma, presented in a format which we believe could serve  [*17]  as the basis for a checklist to be used in processing television renewal applications.  Essentially this includes:

1.  Data as to revenues and cash flow (presented to Commissioners only, and omitted from this public report);

2.  The percentages in program categories "news," "public affairs," and all other than entertainment and sports;

3.  Local programming in hours and minutes, by portions of the day and in total;

4.  Local programs other than news-weather-sports broadcast in the composite week by categories, showing day of week, segment of day, day, frequency and duration of broadcast (e.g., "Morning Devotionals M-F AM 5/25" indicates that this program was presented Monday through Friday before noon for 5 minutes a day, or a total of 25 minutes for the week);

5.  Total time (identifiable in the logs) devoted to news-weather-sports and to other local programs (which does not always agree precisely with the licensee's computations);

6.  A statement characterizing the station's practice with respect to preempting network programming.

We believe that analyzing television renewal applications in these terms would give the staff a basis for bringing to the Commission those applications presenting the least satisfactory program proposals.  We think that judgment should be made primarily in terms of how a particular station compares with others in its area in its non-entertainment or sports and local programming -- with some attention to minimum standards and to the financial health of the station.

Applying the Standards: News and Public Affairs

In the area of news programming, the proposals of the Oklahoma TV stations range from KTUL's 5.5 hours to KVOO's 14.3 hours, with KOCO proposing 7.5 hours, KSWO 7.45, KTEN 10.7, and WKY 13.75.  Since we are here considering both local and network programming, KTUL's proposal seems clearly inadequate -- and those in the 7.5 hours range seem questionable.

We believe that 1.5 hours a day Monday through Friday and half an hour on Saturday and Sunday constitute a pretty rock bottom service -- at least 45 minutes between sign on and, say, 4 p.m., 25 minutes during the dinner hour (many stations provide twice that), 20 minutes late at night, and no less than 25 minutes a day over the weekend. There is no apparent economic explanation for the minimal performance of KOCO and KSWO.

Network Clearances

It appears that KTUL was the only ABC affiliate in Oklahoma which did not clear for the network's daytime news or its two weekend news programs.  In general, it appears to have the poorest record of clearing for ABC's news and public affairs programming of the four affiliates in the State.  (Clearance date were provided covering the period December 1, 1967 to April 11, 1968.) ABC presented two public affairs series, "ABC Scope" and "Issues and Answers." KSWO and KTEN cleared for both, while KOCO and KTUL cleared for neither.  Of 32 advance-scheduled one-time-only public affairs programs offered  [*18] during this period, KSWO cleared for 29, KTEN for 28, KOCO and KTUL for 23.

CBS refused to furnish its clearance report at all, despite the fact that whether or not a station showed a given program to thousands of viewers can scarcely be characterized as "confidential" NBC furnished its clearance report late.  It indicates that WKY cleared for the Huntley-Brinkley Report, Today, The Frank McGee Sunday Report (but not his Saturday Report), two of the three 5-minute daytime newscasts, Meet the Press, all but four of 31 news and cultural specials, and 26 of 36 programs covering special events.  KVOO cleared the same news programs, Today, Meet the Press, 30 of the 31 news and cultural specials, and 30 of 36 special events.  KXII cleared all the news programs, Today, Meet the Press, and 26 of the 36 special events, but carried only 17 of the 31 news and cultural specials.

We wish to make clear our position on clearances.  We would be the last to urge that affiliates must carry network programs of any kind, even news and public affairs.  We would be among the first to defend the rights of local autonomy in programming, and to point up the competitive and ideological dangers in network power.  Local programming is, of course, to be encouraged.  And syndicated programming is available from other than network sources (such as Group W and Metromedia).  But the fact remains the networks are producing some of the finest news and public affairs television available anywhere in the world today.  It is a serious decision for a station to choose the option of depriving its viewers of such programming.  And the local station does have an obligation to provide for its viewers information and analysis about the events and issues of our Nation and our world.  How it does this is its own business.  But we believe it cannot refuse to carry network news and public affairs in the name of "local autonomy" and then refuse to provide this programming from any source whatsoever.  All too often, we believe, this is not a philosophical or programming judgment at all -- simply a refusal to run any program that will not earn the maximum possible profit.  We believe the Commission should be willing to accept many explanations for stations' failure to carry network news and public affairs, but we would not accept the explanation that old series reruns and movies make more money.

The same kind of analysis could also be made with respect to public affairs and other programming.  It should be noted that KWTV, KXII, and KTEN propose less than 1 percent public affairs and that KXII, KTEN, and KSWO propose less than 5 percent public affairs and other combined.  KSWO proposes no agricultural, instructional, or religious programming, though it carried some religious programs during the composite week.

Amount of Local Programming

Another approach to evaluating a station's performance is to consider what it does in the way of local programming.  In doing this, the attached forms do not consider local news.  Although there is significant variation in the news programming furnished by different stations,  [*19]  some local news is expected of a TV station and such programs are often an important source of revenue.  Other local programming may be commercially salable (e.g., entertainment, sports, agricultural), but some of it (e.g., religious, public affairs) often is not.  This local programming other than news, weather, and sports is more difficult to do well, yet represents the broadcaster's principal opportunity to develop and present programming of his own devising and, in so doing, to provide the community with a mass communications service especially tailored to its own needs.

While the stations' proposed local programming including news ranged from 11 hours and 30 minutes for KSWO and 13 hours and 28 minutes for KVOO to 17 hours and 15 minutes for KTUL and 24 hours and 25 minutes for WKY, the levels for local programming other than news are, of course, much lower.  They vary from 1 hour and 8 minutes for KSWO, and 3 hours and 41 minutes for KOTV to 13 hours and 35 minutes for KTUL (thus making up, in some degree, for its deficiencies in news) and 13 hours and 45 minutes for WKY. KTEN, KWTV, and KVOO all had less than 5 hours, while only KTUL and WKY carried more than 9 hours and 15 minutes.

The Local Programs

When one considers the actual programs making up these generally meager totals, the picture is pretty spotty.  Thus Lawton, Oklahoma's third largest city with a population of 61,697, is served only by KSWO-TV, which has a net weekly circulation of 134,600 television homes in southern Oklahoma and northern Texas.  The only local programming other than news received in these homes during the composite week consisted of two programs logged as Instructional (Internal Revenue Service, 15 minutes on Sunday morning; Live in Safety, 30 minutes on Sunday afternoon) and 23 minutes of religious programming (a 5-minute Morning Devotions program broadcast on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday, and a 1-minute Thought for Today presented late at night on Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday).  It appears unlikely that any of this was actually prepared by station personnel.  Nothing at all was provided by the station in the way of local public affairs programming, which includes "talks, commentaries, discussions, speeches, editorials, political programs, documentaries, forums, panels, round tables, and similar programs primarily concerning local * * * public affairs." As noted above, KSWO clears for most of ABC's public affairs programs, thus informing its audience about national and international affairs, but it apparently does little or nothing to perform this important function with respect to State and local affairs.  While such matters were no doubt touched on at times in the station's 7 hours and 15 minutes of local news, weather, and sports programs (this includes time for commercials), we think it is clear that all communities face problems requiring consideration and explication in ways which cannot be accommodated in newscasts.  The station did not indicate that the composite week did not adequately represent its past programming.

It appears to us that KSWO has failed utterly to discharge its  [*20] obligation to serve as an outlet for local self expression during its last license period, and that it should be queried with respect to this aspect of its service.  It should be noted that the station, in its survey, did find a need for public affairs programs, and proposes a local interview program, Monday through Friday, 12 noon to 12:30 p.m., together with two to five "News/Feature Specials" a year.  We do not think, however, that this eliminates the need to inquire further.

Each of the other stations should be analyzed in this same way; however, we will discuss only one more.  Let us consider WKY, which reports the highest level of local nonnews programming in the State, a total of 13 hours and 45 minutes.  This consists of 1 hour and 25 minutes of religious programming (1 hour on Sunday morning and 5 minutes early each weekday morning); 1 hour and 55 minutes of farm news, weather, markets, and bulletins; 30 minutes of instructional programming on the creative arts; 1 hour of wrestling; 7 hours and 55 minutes of entertainment; and 1 hour of public affairs (consisting of two 30-minute programs, "Medicine and You," Sunday, 1 p.m., and "Point of View," Saturday, 12 noon).

We think the station is to be commended for generating this much local programming.  However, we would point out that only "Point of View" can be regarded as providing even a potential vehicle for local self expression and contributing to the solution of community problems.  While this is no doubt a worthwhile contribution, it does not seem to us that a half-hour weekly program broadcast at noon on Saturday is an adequate contribution to the community's discussion and resolution of its problems, especially in view of the fact that the station is immensely profitable.

We have not, and we do not urge the Commission, to evaluate the content and quality of television programs.  We do believe, however, that the Commission can and should consider the character and quantity of a station's local efforts as they relate to the needs and interests of its community.

In WKY's statement of the significant needs and interests of the public which it believes it will serve during the coming license period, it lists the primary need of its community as the need to be informed.  Certainly its news programming contributes to the information process, but more than that is required if a broadcast station is to contribute adequately to the solution of the local problems which face cities like Oklahoma City in these times.

Preemption: The Theory

Another aspect of the performance of stations affiliated with a network which we should examine is their practice with respect to preemption of network programming.  If stations are to do an adequate job of helping their communities understand and resolve their problems, they must not only develop local public affairs programs but must present some of them during hours when the maximum audience is available, which is usually between 6 and 11 p.m.

On June 28, 1961, the Commission adopted revised delegations of authority to the Chief of the Broadcast Bureau.  Attached to the  [*21]  agenda item were the "Notations" which stated that notwithstanding the delegations to the Bureau Chief, all applications in the indicated categories would be acted upon by the Commission.  Among the matters considered to be of such importance as to require Commission action was that of local programming in the nighttime hours.  The notations required all applications proposing less than 5 percent local live and more than 90 percent network between 6 and 11 p.m. to be brought to the Commission.

In late 1962, or early 1963, the Commission considered this issue in connection with the then pending Oklahoma and Texas renewals, and with particular reference to WKY and WFAA.  Those stations were contending that it was neither practical nor necessary to have regularly scheduled local programs in the 6 to 11 p.m. period, but that they discharged their public affairs responsibilities by following a policy of preempting regularly scheduled network programs for local programs when the public interest required.  The Commission finally accepted showings that WKY had preempted time for 21 local live programs during prime time and that WFAA had preempted for 12 or 13 local live programs and had instituted a regular 30-minute program at 10:30 p.m. on Sundays.  Commissioner Cox, who was then chief of the Broadcast Bureau, felt that this action approved pretty minimal levels of local programming and that not enough attention was given to the question of whether the programs were of a type to contribute to the resolution of local issues.  However, that action more or less fixed the pattern for the ensuing period.  See Local Live Programming of Television Stations, 25 R.R. 482, at 486.

Later on the matters of local programming and network preemption were discussed on a number of occasions and, in effect, the relevant notations have been suspended on oral instruction of the Commission.  The whole matter of revised delegations has been pending for some time.  However, the Commission has never formally revised its policies in this area in writing.

We would urge that final action on this matter should retain some standards for local programming -- and particularly local public affairs programming -- in the 6 to 11 p.m. period, whether done on a regularly scheduled or preemptive basis.  The new program form still calls for the time devoted to local programs between 6 and 11 p.m. in the composite week and asks about preemption of time for special programs.

Preemptions: The Practice

What have the Oklahoma television stations done in fact regarding preemptions?

KSWO in Lawton reported no preemptions, saying "need has not arisen in past 12 months," though it listed seven preemptions from previous years.  Taken with the data as to its regularly scheduled local programming, this means that the station, during its last license period, has apparently presented no programs, other than newscasts, which were designed to inform the people of its area with respect to State and local problems.  We feel that further inquiry should be made before  [*22]  this station's renewal is granted.  KFDO in Sayre is a satellite, so that its local programs are really designed for Amarillo.

The other stations show the following preemptions for local programs:

By Program Category

Station                  Total Localn(1)Preemptions     Agricultural           Entertainment                 Sports                                              

KWTV                  3
WKY                     18                                                                                                               3
KOCO                  22                                                                         3                                    6
KVOO                   n(2) 8                                                                                                           n(2) 3
KOTV                   11                                                                         6
KTUL                   25                                                                         1
KXII                       22                                                                                                           3
KTEN                   n(3)                                           n(3)                       n(3)                                 n(3)

Station                  Religious                                 Instructional          Public affairs                  Other
 
KWTV                                                                                               3
WKY                     7                                                                           8
KOCO                                                                                           2                                    4
KVOO                                                                                               5
KOTV                                                                   2                           3
KTUL                   3                                              15                         6
KXII                       1                                              3                           12                                  1
KTEN                   n(3)                                           n(3)                       n(3)                                 n(3)
 

n(1) Some of these programs are recorded, rather than locally produced.

n(2) KVOO also presented a local sports program for an unspecified number of times, often in place of an AFL football game.

n(3) (See discussion below.)

NOTE: The classifications used may not be entirely consistent among stations.

KTEN's response is a bit confusing.  It lists three public affairs programs in prime time as preemptions, and then tabulates 108 "special programs," indicating that some may have preempted regularly scheduled programs.  These included 48 public affairs programs ("This Week in Washington" 20, "Fred Harris Reports" 8, and "Legislative Reports" 20), 12 local football games, a 30-program series classed as information-entertainment, a 13-week series for which no category is given, a 17-hour Cerebral Palsy Talent Telethon and two other entertainment programs, and two religious programs.  Most of these seem to have been locally produced, which seems commendable for a station having only 18 full-time and eight part-time employees.  Some were broadcast between 6 and 6:30 p.m., and the football games ran from 10:30 to 12 p.m. A significant number would seem to have dealt, in some way, with local or State problems.

Preemptions. An Evaluation

The three public affairs preemptions by KWTV hardly seem an adequate supplement to its only regularly scheduled effort to deal with local issues which is presented at 10 a.m. on Sundays.  This station should be asked for a further showing under the WKY-WFAA standards.

WKY does better, though it has fallen far below the standard of 21 preemptions in prime time which the Commission accepted in 1963, since only 12 of its 18 programs were broadcast between 6 and 11 p.m. It seems to have offered two programs dealing with school problems and one on open housing, as well as four others on unspecified subjects and one on "The Garrison Investigation" which was clearly not local in character.

KOCO shows more preemptions, but only six were between 6 and 11 p.m. and only two were logged as public affairs -- one of which dealt  [*23]  with the assassination of President Kennedy.  Since its only public affairs programming in the composite week consisted of 14 minutes at 9 a.m. on Sunday and 30 minutes at 7 a.m. on Thursday, it does not appear that the station is contributing significantly to the understanding of local problems, except through its newscasts, which are not as extensive as those of other stations in the State.

KVOO's preemptions were largely for sports, but it did present five public affairs programs dealing with State and local matters, two of which were broadcast between 6 and 11 p.m. Its composite week logs show a 15-minute program titled "Two About Town" which is presented Wednesdays at 12:15 p.m. and is logged as "Public Affairs- Education."

KOTV preempted for 11 local programs, all but one in the evening hours.  However, only three were logged as public affairs, of which one dealt with the dedication of Oral Roberts University.  The only local public affairs logged in the composite week consisted of three 2-minute editorials.  This is certainly a minimal contribution to the community dialog.

KTUL listed 25 preemptions, only seven of which were presented in the evening hours.  Only six were classified as public affairs, of which two apparently dealt with the drives of the March of Dimes and the American Cancer Society.  At least three of the remaining four seem to have involved local issues, but this, again, is a drop in the bucket.  The only local public affairs programming carried during the composite week consisted of the "Betty Boyd Show" broadcast for 30 minutes each weekday, either at 9 a.m. or 12 noon.

KXII, serving Ardmore, Okla., Sherman and Denison, Tex., with a net weekly circulation of 57,950 homes, listed 22 preemptions, seven of them between 6 and 11 p.m. Of these 12 were logged as public affairs, including eight reports by Senator Harris.  The other four involved the Ardmore water and sewage program, a proposed charter change for Denison, a road-bond issue in the county where Denison is located, and a "Know Your Candidates" program.  This is not much, especially since the station carried no regularly scheduled local public affairs programming during the composite week, but it compares favorably with the efforts of the big city stations with much larger staffs and incomes.

Local Programming Other Than News

It is interesting to note that the only local programming other than news-weather-sports casts carried by the television stations throughout the entire State of Oklahoma between 6 and 11 p.m. during the composite week consisted of a 30-minute entertainment program on WKY, a 30-minute entertainment program on KXII, a 15-minute legislative report on KTEN, and three 2-minute editorials on KOTV.  This means that the nine stations in the State -- excluding KFDO because of its satellite status -- broadcast only 81 minutes of local nonnews programming out of a total of 315 hours on the air, or less than 43/100 of 1 percent.

We do not downgrade local news, and its presentation within, or immediately  [*24]  following, the 6 to 11 p.m. period, as most of the Oklahoma stations do.  However, if our television licensees are to continue to deserve protection against importation of distant signals by CATV systems, or the possible development of direct satellite-to-home broadcasting, they must provide a range of local program services, a significant part of which should be presented in the evening hours when it is most convenient for most of their audiences to watch television.  We think our renewal process should emphasize this responsibility.

Radio

Because of time limitations, we have had to concentrate on television.  We believe the same general kind of check should be made with respect to radio, except that preemption for local programming and local programming between 6 and 11 p.m. are of a different importance.  However, a check should be made to see that radio stations are presenting significant local programming in the categories other than entertainment and sports, and that some of this is broadcast in the periods of maximum audience.  However, radio stations can perform a valuable service by providing more extended local programming, especially public affairs, in the evening hours.  This is not premium time in radio because so many people watch television then, but radio programming can provide an alternative service for those who frequently find nothing on television which interests them.

We are attaching a completed sample form prepared by the staff with respect to KTOK in Oklahoma City.  This gives a pretty good picture of the station's performance, and we would suggest that it be made the basis for a checklist to be used by the staff in processing radio renewals.  We think that the following additional items should be included:

1.  Total times, as well as percentages, for news, public affairs, and other;
2.  News staff and facilities;
3.  Special formats, if any;
4.  Number of PSA's;
5.  Degree of duplication by jointly owned FM stations;
6.  Percentage of time for commercials, all hours and 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., together with number of hours in composite week containing over 18 minutes of commercial time.

We think this material would encompass the most important information elicited by the renewal application form and would permit the staff to identify the stations which should be brought to the Commission's attention.

Renewal Procedures

We believe it is time to resume more thorough examination of renewal applications.  The new forms have been in use for some time -- the radio form was put into partial use for filings on and after January 1, 1966, and completion of the whole form was required on and after November 1, 1966, while the corresponding dates for the television form were January 1 and November 1, 1967.  Having asked for this information, we are obligated to make some reasonable use of it.

Under most recent procedures the staff have no direction from the  [*25] Commission except in the areas of community surveys and commercial policy.  As to these matters, they write letters to stations whose applications reflect deficiencies in the ascertainment of community needs or possible excess commercialism.  They report to the Commission, for each renewal group, the call letters of those stations proposing minimal programming in the categories other than entertainment and sports, but this has served only to trigger our bimonthly dissents.

Section 307(b) of the Communications Act provides that we are not to require applicants to file any information "which is not directly material to the considerations that affect the granting or denial of such application." We think the information requested in part IV of form 301 is material and should be used.  However, we believe that continued failure to make reasonable use of the data in connection with the renewal process could raise questions as to the propriety of the form.

 We think more work needs to be done in developing reasonable processing guidelines for radio, since the picture there is more confused than in television.  For one thing, in larger markets -- like Oklahoma City and Tulsa -- some effort should be made to look at the overall service provided by the multiple stations licensed to these communities.  However, we do not think that this should permit any station to avoid all responsibility for programming other than entertainment, news, and sports.  We should also develop better standards as to community surveys to try to insure that they are not simply used to rubber-stamp formats arrived at by other means.  In fact, we need to know more about what radio is doing and can do, and much of this information is set forth in the renewal applications if we will only use it.

We recognize that the FCC has budgeting and staffing problems at the present time.  While we believe that all applications should be given sufficient checking to catch obvious problems, it may be that we should devise some sampling technique to select applications for detailed analysis.

CONCLUSION

In any event, unless the Commission is to take the position either that a license, once obtained initially, permits the owner of the station to program as he pleases, or that broadcasting can successfully provide only a service limited to entertainment, sports, and a modicum of straight news, we should be examining renewal applications more carefully.  The first of these positions would be inconsistent with our posture on the Fairness Doctrine and with the whole statutory renewal process.  The second would downgrade the possibilities of radio and television enormously and would deprive the public of greatly needed service in the area of discussion and resolution of public issues -- again, in sharp contrast to the requirement of the Fairness Doctrine that licensees "devote a reasonable percentage of their broadcast time to the presentation of news and programs devoted to the consideration and discussion of public issues of interest in the community served by the particular station." We do not think the Commission can abandon the concept of review of program performance at renewal time and should therefore make that review a meaningful one.

 [*26]  KTEN, Channel 10, ADA

ABC (NBC-CBS) Hours 105:15

News                    Public affairs                           Other

Composite week            10.2%                   0.7%                                        2.9%
Proposed                       10.2%                   .7%                                          2.9%

Local programming (hours)

                                                8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m.- 11 p.m.     Other times
                                                         
Composite week                               8:00                      5:50                      0:15

Proposed                                          8:00                      5:50                      0:15

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Church                                                        Sun. a.m.              1:00

Instruction:
Internal Revenue Service                           Sun. p.m.              :10

Public affairs:
Legislative Report                                      Sat. p.m.               :15

Entertainment:
Hudson Brothers Show                              Sun. p.m.              :30

Hudson Brothers Show                              Sat. p.m.               :30

Country Spotlight                                        Sun. p.m.              :30

Country Spotlight                                        Wed. p.m.             :30
                                                                                                2:00
Agriculture;
Farm Show                                                 M-F Noon             6-10/35

Total                                                                                        4:00

News, weather, sports                                                            9:47

KXII, Channel 12, ARDMORE

NBC-CBS Hours 116:30

News                    Public affairs                      Other

Composite week            8.7%                     3.6%                              6.3%

Proposed                       7.9%                     .84%                              3.4%

Local programming (hours)

                                      8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. 11 p.m.                Other times

Composite week            9:55                      6:30                               0:25

Proposed                       8:55                      6:00                               0:30

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Herald of Truth                                           Sun. a.m.                       :30
Baptist Church                                            Sun. a.m.                       1:00
                                                                                                          1:30
Entertainment:
Carol's Western                                          M-F p.m.                        :30/2:30

Clubhouse:
Meet Your Neighbor                                   M & Th. p.m.                  :30/1:00
Pickin Time                                                 Tues. 7:30                     :30
                                                                             p.m.
                                                                                                          4:00
Agriculture:
Twelve Acres                                              M-F Noon                      30/2:30
                                                                                                          2:30
Instructional:
Women's World                                          M-F p.m.                        30/2:30
                                                                                                          2:30

Total                                                                                                 10:30
News, weather, sports                                                                       7:20

 [*27]  KSWO, Channel 7, LAWTON

ABC Hours 106:49
                                      News                    Public affairs                  Other
 
Composite week            6.7%                     3.3%                              0%

Proposed                       7.0%                     2.3%                              0%

Local programming (hours)

                                      8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. 11 p.m.                Other times

Composite week            3:00                      6:00                               0:0

Proposed                       5:30                      6:00                               0:0

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Morning Devotions                                     M, Tu, W, F                             5/:20
p.m.
Thought for Today                                     W, Th, Sat                               1/:03
                                                                                                                   :23
Instructional:
Internal Revenue Service                           Sun. a.m.                                 :15
Live in Safety                                              Sun. p.m. :30
                                                                                                                                               
:45
Total                                                                                                           1:08

News, Weather, Sports                                                                              7:15

KOCO, Channel 5, OKLAHOMA CITY
ABC Hours 134

                                      News                    Public affairs                  Other times
 
Composite week            5.6%                     1.8%                              6.9%

Proposed                       5.6%                     1.8%                              6.9%

Local programming (hours)

8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. 11 p.m.                Other times

Composite week            11:15                    3:25                               2:10

Proposed                       11:15                    3:25                               2:10

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Sunday, 5 programs                                                                         :10,: 14,
                                                                                                          :28,:15
                                                                                                          :10/1:17
Reflections                                                 M-F                                5/:25
Reflections                                                 M-F                                5/:25
Reflections                                                 Sat                                 :05
                                                                                                          2:12
Public affairs:
Open Mind                                                  Sun. a.m.                       :14
Public Affairs/Education Expedition            Th. a.m.                         :30
Oklahoma.
Instructional/Education Enid Book              Sat. a.m.                        :30
Bowl.                                                                                                 1:14

Entertainment:
Lunch with Ho Ho                                       M-F Noon                      35/2:55
Ida B. Show                                                M-F a.m.                        30/2:30
                                                                                                          5:25
Instructional:
Crown Chinchilla                                        Sun. p.m.                       :13

Total  9:04
News, weather, sports  7:45

[*28]  KWTV, Channel 9, OKLAHOMA CITY
CBS Hours 125:39
                                               
News                    Public affairs                  Other

Composite week            8.5%                     0.8%                              11.4%
Proposed                       8.5%                     0.8%                              11.4%

Local programming (hours)
                                      8 a.m.- 6 p.m.        6 p.m. -11 p.m.              Other times

Composite week            5:30                      6:30                               4:01
Proposed                       5:30                      6:30                               4:01

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Sunday                                                       Sun. a.m.                       :30
Devotions                                                   M-F a.m.                        10/:50
                                                                                                                                   
1:20
Agriculture:
Farm Report                                               M, Tu, W, F a.m.            10/:40
 
This Morning                                              Th. am*h:09
Farm Show                                                 Sat. a.m.                        :30
Plus Market Reports in News                                                             :02

Entertainment:                                                                                  :121
Gaylon Stacy Show                                    M, Tu, F p.m.                 30/1:30

Public affairs:
Dr. Stephens                                              Sun. a.m.                       :30
Total  4:41
News, weather, sports                                                                      1:20

WKY, Channel 4, OKLAHOMA CITY
NBC Hours 123:08
                                      News                    Public affairs                  Other
 
Composite week            12.2%                   3.5%                              7.2%
Proposed                       11.2%                   2.2%                              6.3%

Local programming (hours)
                                               
8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. - 11 p.m.              Other Times
 
Composite week            11:12                    6:11                               5:18
Proposed                       12:05                    7:30                               4:50

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Sunday School                                           Sun. a.m.                       :30
Church                                                        Sun. a.m.                       :30
Morning Devotionals                                  M-F a.m.                        5/25
                                                                                                          1:25
Agriculture:
Markets & Bulletins                                    M-F a.m.                        8/40
Farm news and weather                             M-F a.m.                        15/1:15

                                                                                                1:55
Instructional:
Creative Arts                                               Sat. p.m.                        :30

Sports:
Wrestling                                                    Sat. p.m.                        1:00

Public affairs:
Medicine and You                                      Sun. p.m.                       :30
Point of View                                              Sat. noon                       :30
                                                                                                                                   
1:00
Entertainment:
Foreman Scotty                                          M-F p.m.                        30/2:30
Dennys Day                                                M, W, Th p.m.                35/1:45

T. P. Show                                                 Tu p.m.                          :35
This Afternoon                                            F p.m.                            :35
Country Social                                            F p.m.                            :30
Foreman Scotty Roundup                          Sat. a.m.                        1:00
The Scene                                                  Sat. p.m.                        :30
Judy & Jody                                                Sat. p.m.                        :30
                                                                                                          7:55
Total                                                                                                 13:45
News, weather, sports                                                                      10:40

 [*29]  KFDO, Channel 8, SAYRE
CBS Hours 128:18

                                      News                    Public affairs                  Other
 
Composite week            8.0%                     1.25%                            11.98%
Proposed                       9.4%                     2.23%                            11.9%

3*3Local programming (hours)

                             8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. - 11 p.m.              Other times

Composite week            7:30                      6:30                               5:10
Proposed                       10:00                    6:30                               5:30

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Pattern for Living                                        Sun. a.m.                       :30
Church Service                                           Sun. a.m.                       1:00
Religious Questions                                   Sun. a.m.                       :30
Meditations                                                 M-F a.m.                        5/:25
                                                                                                          2:25
Educational, instructional, and other:
Stop Look & Listen                                     M-F a.m.                        40/3:20
Romper Room                                            M-F a.m.                        30/2:30
Amarillo College                                         M&T a.m.                       Ed 30/1:00
                                                                                                          6:50

Total                                                                                                 9:15
News, weather, sports                                                                      10:40

KOTV, Channel 6, TULSA
CBS Hours 123:20
                                               
News                    Public affairs                  Other times

Composite week            8.3%                     2.1%                              7.5%
Proposed                       8.3%                     2.0%                              7.3%

Local Programming (hours)

                             8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. - 11 p.m.               Other
 
Composite week            4:38                      5:59                               1:03
Proposed                       7:30                      6:00                               1:00

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
Church                                                        Sun. a.m.                       1:00
Light                                                           M & W a.m.                    5/:10
                                                                                                          1:10
Entertainment:
Colorful World                                            Tu. a.m.                         :30
Dance Party                                               Sat. Noon                      :30
                                                                                                          1:00
Other:
Bookshelf                                                   Sun. a.m.                       :30
Project                                                        M-F a.m.                        5/:25
Coffee Break                                              M-F a.m.                        6/:30
                                                                                                          1:25
Public affairs:
Editorial                                                      M, W, F                          :02/:06
                                                                                                          :06
Total                                                           3:41
News, weather, sports                                                                      8:57

[*30]  KTUL, Channel 8, TULSA
ABC Hours 117:45
                                              
News                    Public affairs                  Other
 
Composite week           4.7%                     2.7%                              7.3%
Proposed                      4.7%                     2.7%                              7.3%

Local programming (hours)
                                     8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. -  11 p.m.             Other

Composite week           9:53                      5:02                               2:20
Proposed                      9:53                      5:02                               2:20

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Religious:
The Vanguards                                          Sun. a.m.                       :15
Pastors Study                                            Sun. a.m.                       :15
Revival Fires                                             Sun. a.m.                       :30
Galaxy 67                                                  Sun. a.m.                       :30
Meditation, sign on & off                            Sun.-Sat. a.m.                1:00
Lords Prayer                                                                                    :15
                                                                                                         2:45
Educational/instructional:
Let's Explore                                              Sat. & Sun. a.m.            30/1:00
Romper Room                                           M, Tu, W a.m.                1:20
                                                                                                         2:20
Other:
High Flight                                                 M, Th. Mid                     :02 or :03/:05

Entertainment:
Mr. Zing & Tuffy                                        M-F p.m.                        3:30
Rub A Dub                                                 Tu, F p.m.                      30/1:00
Big 8 Jamboree                                         F p.m.                            :30
                                                                                                         5:00
Public affairs/instructional:
Betty Boyd Show                                       M-F a.m.                        2/30

Agriculture:
Farm Reports                                            M, Tu, W, Th,                :08-:10/
                                                                  Sat. a.m.                        :40
Market Basket                                           Sat a.m.                         :15
                                                                                                         :55
Total                                                                                                13:35
News, weather, sports                                                                     6:26

KVOO, Channel 2, TULSA
NBC Hours 119:25
                                     News                    Public affairs                  Other
 
Composite week           12%                      5.0%                              6%
Proposed                      12%                      3.5%                              6%

Local programming (hours)

8 a.m.- 6 p.m.       6 p.m. -11 p.m.               Other times

Composite week           4:55                      6:18                               2:15
Proposed                      4:55                      6:18                               2:15

Local Programs Other Than News During Composite Week

Agriculture:
County Fare                                              S a.m.                            :30
Almanac                                                     M-F a.m.                        5/:25
                                                                                                         :55
Education:
Tulsa School Report                                 S a.m.                            :30
                                                                                                         :30
Religious:
Church                                                       S a.m.                            1:00
Sing                                                           S a.m.                            :15
Meditation                                                  M-F a.m.                        5/:25
                                                                                                         1:40
Public affairs/education:
Two about Town                                       M-F p.m.                        15/1:15
                                                                                                        1:15

Total                                                                                                4:20
News, weather, sports                                                                     8:38

 [*31]  Example of Radio Renewal Checklist (KTOK)

Population: 448,300.
Stations in city: 7 AM, 7 FM, 1 FM-ED., 3 TV and 2 TV-ED.
Station: KTOK-AM, Oklahoma City, Okla.
Operating facilities: 1000 KC, 5 KW U.
Hours of operation: 168.
Network affiliation: ABC.
Metro rating: 2.2.

Commercial policy

Number of employees             Normal        Special       Special Circumstances

 39              18                         20
                                                Christmas, political, Oklahoma State Fair, and other special promotions.

Types of programs (percent)

Composite week                                                                      3*Now proposed

News          Public affairs        Other                                       News          Public affairs          Other 
2.7              0.6                        4.3                                           12.7            0.6                        4.3

Survey: 324 Report -- 1966: Dollar
Satisfactory                                                                             B/C Rev
Weak                                                                                       B/C Exp
                                                                                                B/C Income
                                                                                                Salaries
                                                                                                Pay. to Princ
                                                                                                Deprec
Forfeitures:
10/65 Broadcast of lottery information                                     $500 paid 5/27/66
                                                                            

KTOK, Oklahoma City, Okla.

Complaint details                                                                     Disposition

10/13/65 Individual objects to broadcast interview with prostitute.             Station answer satisfactory.
10/65 Individual claims obscene descriptive words used.                          Station answer satisfactory.
10/65 Broadcast of lottery information in giveaway ad.                              $500 forfeiture paid 5/27/66.
1/11/66 2 individuals objected to interview of Nazi Party leader.               Not specific -- no further action.
3/28/67 Individual claims station unfairly withheld contest prize from her.  Station answer satisfactory. 
 6 letters of commendation

 [*32]  Typical Programs or Program Series Broadcast During the Preceding year: KTOK, Oklahoma City

KTOK, Oklahoma City

Exhibit No. 8

Date: 2-5-68

Section IV-A, Part II

PAST PROGRAMMING

          Title                                         Source                 Type           Brief description

Headliners                                        Local                    PA               Interviews with civic and political leaders.
Mayor's Call                                      Local                    PA               Telephone interviews with mayor of Oklahoma City.
Blind Spot                                         Local                    PA               Information for and about the blind.
White Kid Glove Award                     Local                    PA               Areawide beautification program.
Capt. Perdue's Traffic Reports         Local                    Other          Traffic reports and advisories.
Swap Shop                                       Local                    Other          Listeners call in to buy, sell, or trade.
Play by Play Blazers                         Local                    S                 Professional ice hockey games.
Play by Play Plainsman                    Local                    S                 Professional football games.
Sports News                                     Local                    S                 Local sports news
Pin Up Board                                    Local                    PA               Public Service program for local clubs.
Hymn of the Day                               Record                 R                 Devotional music
Farm News                                       Local                    A                 Market prices and farm news.

Religious programs:

Capitol Hill Church of Christ.            Local                    R                 Sermon
Old Fashioned Revival.                          Rec                      R                 Sermon
Voice of Prophecy                             Rec                      R                 Sermon
10th Street Church of Christ.               Local                    R                 Sermon
Christian Science                              Rec                      R                 Sermon
St Luke's Methodist.                                Local                    R                 Sunday Church service

"Meet the Candidates 1st Edition."   Local                    PA Pol        Candidates for mayor questioned by KTOK newsman, and by listeners by phone.

"Meet the Candidates 2d Edition."    Local                    PA Pol        Two runoff candidates for mayor spoke and answered questions from listening audience.

"Judicial Reform Debate."                 Local                    PA Pol        Debate between Oklahoma Senate Minority Leader and a Justice of the Peace over                                                                                                                  proposed court reforms. 
"The Miracle Workers"                      Local                    PA Ed.        Review of State legislature's work on educational bills. (This program won Oklahoma                                                                                                       Education Association Award for "Best Single Radio Program" in State of Oklahoma                                                                                                                                               concerning education.)
"Flashback --1967"                           Local                    PA               Review of major local news stories of 1967.

Title                                                   Time and duration                                                How often broadcast

Headliners                                        Sunday, 12:05 p.m.                                    1 weekly.

                                                                        25 Minutes
Mayor's Call                                      Approx. 7:25 a.m.                                       3 weekly.
                                                          3 minutes
Blind Spot                                         9:15 p.m.                                                    1 weekly.
                                                          5 minutes
White Kid Glove Award                     Rotate                                                         6 daily.
                                                                       
1 minute
Capt. Perdue's Traffic Reports         Between 7 a.m.- 8:30 a.m.; 4:30 p.m.-6 p.m.       As needed. 
                                                          30 to 60 seconds.
Swap Shop                                       7:05 p.m.                                                    6 weekly.
                                                          50 minutes
Play by Play Blazers                         8 p.m.                                                         3 Weekly
                                                          Approximately 2 1/2 hours.
Play by Play Plainsmen                    8 p.m.                                                         1 weekly.
                                                                       
Approximately 2 hours
Sports News                                     6:05 p.m. --                                                 k weekly.
                                                         5 minutes.
Pin Up Board                                    9:45 a.m. --
                                                          2 minutes.
                                                          2:45 p.m. --                                                 12-18 weekly
                                                          2 minutes.
                                                          8:45 p.m. --
                                                          2 minutes.
                                                          (when necessary)
Hymn of the Day                               6:25 a.m. --
                                                          3 minutes.
                                                          9:50 p.m. --                                                 12 weekly.
                                                          3 minutes.
                                                          (approximately)
Farm News                                       4:30 a.m. --
                                                          3 minutes.
                                                          5:27 a.m.-                                                   10 weekly.
                                                          3 minutes.
Religious programs:

Capitol Hill Church of Christ             7:30 a.m. --                                                 1 weekly.
                                                                       
30 minutes.
Old Fashioned Revival.                    8 a.m. --                                                      1 weekly.
                                                          30 minutes.
Voice of Prophecy                             8:30 a.m. --                                                 1 weekly.
                                                          30 minutes.
10th Street Church of Christ             9 a.m. --                                                      1 weekly.
                                                          15 minutes.
Christian Science                              9:15 a.m.-                                                                1 weekly,
                                                          15 minutes.
St. Luke's Methodist 60 minutes.      9:30 a.m. --                                                 1 weekly.
 
"Meet the Candidates 1st Edition."   8 p.m.                                                         1 time.
                                                                       
2 hours
"Meet the Candidates 2d Edition."     8 p.m.                                                         1 time.
                                                          1 hour
"Judicial Reform debate."                      8 p.m.                                                         1 time.
                                                          1 hour
"The Miracle Workers”                           6:30 p.m.                                                    1 time.
                                                          25 minutes
"Flashback -- 1967"                          7:30 p.m.                                                    1 time.
                                                          29 minutes, 52 seconds

 [*33]  Media Ownership in Oklahoma

We have chosen to examine a sample of broadcasting stations in the State of Oklahoma.  In doing so we hope be able to say something generally about the service that Oklahoma receives from the Commission's broadcast licensees.  One facet of that examination is a description of the patterns of media ownership.  Our Nation has affirmed the necessity for dispersion of private power -- and this Commission has pledged to guarantee that dispersion in the ownership of broadcast properties.  n1 But how well is that pledge carried out?  The following analysis offers some guide.

n1 In one of its most recent statements, declining to adopt more restrictive rules for ownership of TV stations in the 50 markets, the Commission said: "The twofold purpose of the Commission's multiple ownership rules is to promote maximum competition among broadcasters and the greatest possible diversity of programming sources and viewpoints." (FCC 68-135.)

There are roughly 83 commercial radio and 10 commercial TV stations in Oklahoma. n2 There are also five educational radio and three educational TV stations.  Because of multiple station ownership, however, there are fewer than 93 separate owners of commercial broadcast stations.  In fact, there are 73.  At first glance one might feel reassured that there are 73 separate broadcast owners in Oklahoma.  But the following statistics are less comforting.  Of the 73 broadcast firms reporting 1966 revenue and income, the top four firms earned 56 percent of the revenue and 88 percent of the income.  n3 The top eight firms earned 73 percent of the revenue and 98 percent of the income before taxes.  The figures for television and radio firms show a similar pattern.  Of the nine TV firms reporting, the top four earn 78 percent of the TV revenue and 97 percent of the TV income, and have 75 percent of the total net weekly circulation.  n4 Of the 68 radio firms the top four earn 29 percent of the radio revenue and 67 percent of the radio income; the top eight earn 50 percent of the radio revenue and 93 percent of the radio income.

n2 As measured by stations reporting 1966 revenue.

n3 All income is income before taxes.  Percent figures for income before taxes are based on percent of net income for the State after losses are subtracted.

n4 In this analysis the overlapping ownership interests in KOCO-TV, Oklahoma City and KVOO-AM-TV, Tulsa (individuals with 27 percent interests in KOCO-TV own 8.82 percent of KVOO-TV) have been ignored.

These figures suggest certain conclusions.  Most of these stations do not compete against each other for advertising revenues, except at the local community level.  However, in describing the state of the broadcast media in Oklahoma, it is obvious that a few firms and a few stations enjoy a dominant position in the State.  Political candidates for statewide office will have to be cognizant of the influence of these few firms and stations.  These stations will also have a substantial impact on statewide issues.  In sum, a few large firms dominate broadcasting in the State of Oklahoma.

The information for State daily newspapers shows a similar pattern.  There are 50 daily newspapers in Oklahoma with a total daily circulation of about 863,000.  One firm, the Oklahoma Publishing Co., publishes two newspapers in Oklahoma City, the Oklahoma and the Times, which account for roughly 35 percent of the total statewide daily circulation of State newspapers.  The four largest newspaper firms account for 69 percent of the daily circulation; the eight largest [*34]  77 percent.  And this concentration problem is exacerbated by the fact that the largest newspaper owner also owns a very large AM-TV (WKY-AM-TV) complex in Oklahoma City.  Another aspect of media concentration is the overlapping ownership of media.  Of the approximately 50 communities in Oklahoma that have broadcasting stations licensed to them, 12 have local media monopolies -- all broadcast stations and daily newspapers (if any) are jointly owned.  (In three communities the newspaper and only radio station are jointly owned; in one the newspaper owns two stations; in seven there is only one radio station; and in one there are two stations jointly owned.)

Here is a list of the multiple ownership of broadcast stations and newspapers in Oklahoma by cities.  Additional detail is found in the cities sections which follow:

Ada. -- The owner of TV station KTEN also owns AM station KEOR in Atoka.

Altus. -- The owner of AM station KWHW has an interest in the Altus daily newspaper, the Times-Democrat.

Ardmore. -- The owner of AM station KVSO also owns the Ardmore daily newspaper (Ardmore Ardmoreite).

Atoka. -- See Ada above.

Duncan. -- The owner of AM station KRHD also owns AM station KGWA, Enid, and KSWO-AM-TV, Lawton.

Durant. -- The owner of KSEO-AM-FM also owns the Durant daily newspaper, the Democrat.

Enid. -- The owner of KCRC-AM-FM also owns the two Enid daily newspapers, the Enid News and Enid Eagle.  Also see Duncan above.

Henryetta. -- The owner of KHEN-AM-FM also has controlling interest in the Henryetta daily newspaper, the Free Lance, and has an interest in KJEM-AM-FM, Oklahoma City.

Lawton. -- See Duncan above.

McAlester. -- AM-FM stations KWED are jointly owned.

Muskogee. -- The owner of AM station KBIX also owns the two Muskogee daily newspapers, the Phoenix and the Times-Democrat.

Norman. -- WNAD-AM-FM are jointly owned.

OKLAHOMA City. -- KOCY-AM-FM are jointly owned.  WKY-AM-TV, two Oklahoma City daily newspapers, the Oklahoma and the Times and a farmers' monthly, the Farmer-Stockman, are jointly owned.  The owner of TV station KWTV also owns TV station KTUL-TV in Tulsa.  The owner of KLPR-AM-TV also has an interest in AM station KTOW, Sand Springs.  The part owner of KOCO-TV and KOFM (FM) also has an interest in KVOO-TV, Tulsa.  The owner of KBYE has a new FM in Oklahoma City. KJEM-AM-FM are jointly owned.  Also see Henryetta above.

Ponca City. -- Stations KLOR-AM-FM are jointly owned.  The owner of AM station WBBZ also owns the Ponca City daily newspaper, the News.

Sand Springs. -- See Oklahoma City above.

Shawnee. -- The owner of AM station KGFF also owns the Shawnee daily newspaper, the News Star.

Stillwater. -- The owner of KSPI-AM-FM also owns the Stillwater daily newspaper, the News-Press.

Tahlequah. -- KTLQ-AM-FM are jointly owned.

Tulsa. -- KAKC-AM-FM are jointly owned. KFMJ (AM) and KRAV-FM are linked by joint interests.  KRMG-AM-FM are jointly owned.  Also see Oklahoma City above.

In addition to the above incidence of joint ownership of media within the State of Oklahoma, owners of Oklahoma media also have interests in media outside the State.  Here is a listing of that ownership:

Ardmore. -- The owners of KXII (TV) also have interests in KWTX- AM-TV, Waco, Tex.; KBTX-TV Bryan, Tex.; KNAL, Victoria, Tex.; KLFY-TV, Lafayette, La.; and KTBC-AM-FM-TV, Austin, Tex.

 [*35]  Duncan. -- The owners of KRHD (AM), Duncan, R. H. Drewry stations (who also own KGWA (AM) Enid, and KSWO-AM-TV, Lawton), own KMID-TV Midland, Tex.

Enid. -- See Duncan above.

Lawton. -- See Duncan above.

Oklahoma City. -- The owner of WKY-AM-TV, the Oklahoma City Oklahoman and Times and the Farmer-Stockman, also owns WTVT (TV), Tampa, Fla.; KTVT (TV), Fort Worth, Tex.; WVTV (TV), Milwaukee, Wis.; and KHTV (TV), Houston, Tex.  The owners of KWTV (TV) and KTUL-TV, Tulsa, own KATV (TV), Little Rock, Ark.; and 80 percent of WSTE (TV), Fajardo, P.R.  The owners of KLPR- AM-TV and KTOW, Sand Springs, also have interests in KTCS-AM-FM, Fort Smith, Ark., and KPAY, Fayetteville, Ark. Part owners of KOCO-TV and KVOO-TV, Tulsa, also have interests in KBMT (TV), Beaumont, Tex.  The owners of KBYE also own KXLR, North Little Rock, Ark.  The owner of KOMA also owns WQAM, Miami, Fla.; WHB, Kansas City, Mo.; KXOK, St. Louis, Mo.; WTIX, New Orleans, La.; and WDGY, Minneapolis, St. Paul. Minn.

Sayre. -- The owners of KFDO-TV also own KFDA-TV, Amarillo, Tex. (KFDO-TV is a satellite of KFDA-TV); KFDW-TV, Clovis, N. Mex.; and KAAR-TV, San Diego, Calif.

Shawnee. -- The owner of KGFF and the Shawnee News Star (Stauffer Publications) also owns KSEK, Pittsburg, Kans.; KSOK, Arkansas City, Kans.; WIBW-AM-FM-TV, Topeka, Kans.; and KGNC-AM-FM-TV, Amarillo, Tex.; and the following newspapers -- Topeka (Kans.) State Journal and Topeka (Kans.) State capital; Kansas City Kansan; Arkansas City (Kans.) Traveler; Pittsburg (Kans.) Headlight-Sun; Newton (Kans.) Kansas; Grand Island (Nebr.) Independent; York (Nebr.) News-Time; Maryville (Mo.) Forum; Nevada (Mo.) Mail; Independence (Mo.) Examiner; Marshall (Mo.) Democrat-News.  A minority stockholder own KKAM, Pueblo, and KKFM (FM) and KKTV, Colorado Springs, Colo.

Tulsa. -- The owners of KOTV (TV) (Corinthian Stations) also own WISH-TV, Indianapolis, Ind.; WANE-TV, Fort Wayne, Ind.; KHOU-TV, Houston, Tex.; and KXTV (TV), Sacramento, Calif, and interests in WGHQ-AM-FM, Kingston, N.Y., and WVOX-AM-FM, New Rochelle, N.Y. Corinthian stations are controlled by Whitney Communications which also publishes Parade (newspaper supplement); Interior Design; Harvest Years; and the New York Herald Tribune -- Paris edition.  KELI is owned by Sammons-Ruff stations which also own KTRN, Wichita Falls, Tex.; KHOG, Fayetteville, Ark.; KIXZ, Amarillo, Tex.; and KWAT, Watertown, S. Dak. KOME is owned by Unicom, Inc., which has an interest in KJIM, Fort Worth.  KRMG-AM-FM is owned by Swanco stations which also owns KQEO, Albuquerque, N. Mex.; KLEO, Wichita, Kans.; and KBAT, San Antonio, Tex.

Each of the 10 TV stations in Oklahoma is associated by ownership with other broadcast stations or newspapers; about half of the radio stations are associated with other broadcast stations or newspapers.  Concentration of control of media in the State of Oklahoma, whether measured by incidence of multiple ownership or the domination of statewide circulation and broadcast revenues by a few firms, is far greater than it would be if this Commission had followed its pledge to "promote maximum competition."

Another facet of media ownership to be explored is conglomerate control.  Media are often owned by corporations for whom the broadcast stations or newspapers are simply a profit-making subsidiary.  In addition to being treated as a lonely branch of the corporate tree, conglomerate ownership of media opens the possibility of program distortion from other direct or competitive corporate interests.

Information on the extent of conglomeration is difficult to accumulate.  None of the Oklahoma stations is owned by such familiar conglomerates as RCA, CBS, ABC, RKO General, Westinghouse, [*36]  or General Electric.  But the following two case studies offer illustrations of conglomerate broadcast owners.

The WKY-AM-TV stations are owned by the Oklahoma Publishing Co., which also publishes the Oklahoma City Oklahoman (circulation 170,709) and the Oklahoma City Times (circulation 116, 379).  The Oklahoma Publishing Co. also publishes three State editions of the monthly Farmer-Stockman with a circulation of 435,000 in the States of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas.  The Oklahoma Publishing Co. also owns Mistletoe Express, which provides a general trucking service to 400 Oklahoma cities.  Publishers Petroleum Division of Oklahoma Publishing Co. is involved in oil exploration and production.  And Oklahoma Publishing Co. also owns TV stations in Dallas-Fort Worth, and Houston, Tex.; Tampa, Fla.; and Milwaukee, Wis. Oklahoma Publishing Co. is owned by the Gaylord family which also owns Gaylord Philanthropies, Inc.

The other business interests of the officers, directors, and stockholders of the corporation that owns KOCO (TV) in Oklahoma City (and have interests in KOFM (FM), Oklahoma City; KVOO-TV, Rulsa; KBMT (TV), Beaumont, Tex.) illustrates the complicated corporate interests of this Commission licensee:

Real Estate Proprietary
Mid-Continent News Co., Oklahoma City
Oklahoma News Co., Tulsa
Publishers News Co. of Iowa, Oklahoma City
Publishers News Co. of Nebraska, Oklahoma City
Publishers News Co. of Dakotas, Oklahoma City
Publishers News Co. of Minnesota, Oklahoma City
Green Building Co. (Real Estate Development), Oklahoma City
Liberty National Bank & Trust Co., Oklahoma City
Community National Bank, Oklahoma City
Great Western Business Investment Co., Oklahoma City
Tascosa Gas Co.
Kerr-McGee Co.
McGee Properties Ltd.
Kerr Aviation Service, Inc.
Arkansas Valley Farms
Shamrock School of Aeronautics, Inc.
Black Angus Restaurant
Loyd Benfield Oil Co., Oklahoma City
OK and B Drilling Co.
Kirkpatrick Oil Co.
Kirkpatrick Oil & Gas Co.
Kirkpatrick Pipeline Co.
Kirkpatrick Drilling Co.
Jennings Engine & Supply Co.
Kirkpatrick Supply Co.
Essex Corp.
Standard Life & Accident Insurance Co.
Resources Development Corp.
The Kerr Foundation, Inc.

This analysis of broadcast and other media ownership in Oklahoma has necessarily been incomplete.  But even this survey shows that the Commission has been less than vigilant in maintaining maximum competition and diversity and protecting the absolute integrity of media programming.

 [*37]  Note on Letters to Broadcasters

This study was occasioned by our own dissatisfaction with Commissioner participation in the process of renewing roughly 2,500 broadcast licenses a year.  Once every 2 months our staff presents a summary of what action is proposed on the stations due to be renewal at that time.  The staff calls attention to those AM and TV stations which propose less than 5 percent news, less than 1 percent public affairs, or less than 5 percent all other programming except sports and entertainment.  We have been dissenting to certain license renewals on the basis of those statistics presented by our staff.

It was our hope that by undertaking a more thorough analysis of the renewal process for a particular State we might gain a firmer understanding and basis for our judgments.  In that spirit we sent letters to a selected group of broadcasters asking for information concerning the role of the broadcaster in his local community.  (Copies of these letters are in appendix A.) We anticipated that these letters would provide broadcasters with an opportunity to supplement the information in their renewal forms.  Some broadcasters responded in just that way.

But the letters occasioned a somewhat extreme response from many broadcasters and the broadcasting trade press.  Appeals were made to members of the Oklahoma congressional delegation, intervention was sought from the Budget Bureau to stop this harassment of businessmen, and only 25 percent of the stations responded in any way, even after a clarifying letter (also in the appendix) was sent. Some stations did, however, respond, and with useful and informative material.  These stations included:

KOCO-TV, of Oklahoma City, which emphasized that American Indians, rather than Negroes, constitute the bulk of the nonwhite population of Oklahoma City, pointed out examples of efforts to cooperate with local Indian leaders to promote general understanding of the positive role of the Indian in the building of the American West, and also noted the considerable attention paid by the station to the Kerner Commission through its regularly scheduled show, "Fred Harris Reports," featuring the Oklahoma Senator who was a member of the Commission.

KVOO-TV, of Tulsa, which listed rumors about racial strife as the paramount among its selection of five important local issues, and described its efforts to cut provocative scenes from its news programming, along with other efforts to build amicable race relations in Tulsa.

KETA-TV and KOED-TV, ETV stations for Oklahoma and Tulsa, both licensed to the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, which emphasized their financial inability to compete with commercial stations as a news-gathering and distributing medium, and emphasized further their efforts to promote the common good through education, both instructional and cultural.

KOKH-FM-TV, ETV station for Oklahoma City, emphasized that its role is almost exclusively limited to instructional daytime programming, but pointed to a large number of efforts to broadcast programs dealing with problems of race relations over its own facilities and also on the VHF channel licensed to the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, KETA-TV.

KOCY-AM and FM, of Oklahoma City, noted financing city government as the most important on a list of local issues which included urban renewal, racial relations, intercity sewers, roads and expressways, and alcoholism, as problems to which the stations have endeavored to devote broadcast attention.

 [*38]  KBIX of Muskogee, emphasized its forum of the air programs and spot-time sales to groups interested in such issues as the Arkansas River bond proposal, right-to-work legislation, Muskogee school annexation, urban renewal, and the increase in general hospital rates.

KTLQ of Tahlequah originally responded, and then asked that its response be withdrawn, after the station realized that it was not obliged to answer our letter.  Accordingly, we are not reporting the contents of its original letter.

Some stations sent explanations of why they were disinclined or unable to respond to our letters.  Among these the most elaborate was that of WKY-AM-TV, of Oklahoma City.  WKY explained that it considered the letters ultra vires if answers were to be used in evaluating renewal applications (which they were not) and uncalled for if they were not to be so used.  In addition, WKY voiced specific objections to the questions we asked, including especially a professed uncertainty as to whether our query about employment of and programming for minority groups related just to racial minorities, or more broadly to groups classified by "color, religion, sex, and place of national origin."

Letters were also sent to the three networks asking for a listing of public affairs programming for a specified period and the record of clearances on Oklahoma TV stations. ABC and NBC complied with our request; CBS sent a list of programs but refused to send data on clearances.

We are reluctant to draw conclusions from the unwillingness of certain of the stations to answer simple requests, or from the position of CBS with respect to its refusal to supply data furnished by the other networks.  It strikes us as odd that stations which uniformly claim they operate in the public interest were unwilling to respond to limited requests for additional relevant information by two members of the Commission which licenses and supervises their operations.  The unwillingness of so many stations made it difficult for us to draw conclusions with respect to the matters about which we inquired.  As pointed out in our letter, our request did not constitute agency action, and so stations were not required to answer.  However, we hoped that we would receive sufficient answers to permit meaningful conclusions.

In the course of this study we have necessarily concerned ourselves with programming.  We make no apology for this fact.  We believe the Communications Act of 1934, its legislative history, court decisions, the existence of the very renewal forms we have been evaluating, and numerous other actions of this Commission during its 34-year life clearly establish that "censorship," which is forbidden both by the Communications Act and by the Constitution, is not to be equated with FCC concern about local service by broadcast licensees.  Such concern is required by the Commission's mandate.

We would point out in this connection the following:

1.  Our entire analysis has been based upon information in the license renewal form and other publicly available sources.  (Our efforts to obtain supplementary information were resisted by many Oklahoma broadcasters and by their trade associations and trade press.) Most of the objections to our study are, in fact, objections directed to the existence of the license renewal form, or even the very existence of Federal regulation of any kind.

2.  We note that we have not listened to a single audio tape, viewed any video tape, or read any transcripts of Oklahoma broadcasters' programming product.  Nor have we, at any point throughout this study, indicated that a particular program should not have been shown, or that a favorite of ours deserves wide exposure.

 [*39]  3.  We have directed our attention to the general public service, and local orientation, of the stations involved.  We have looked at percentages of regular news, public affairs and programming other than entertainment and sports, and the station's willingness to clear for this type of special network programming; we have examined the quantities of locally originated programming; we have considered the other media available to the station's audience; we have taken into account the station's revenues in determining their economic capability to do better (this is proprietary information and has not been reported by us).

4.  Moreover, we believe this analysis is necessary to our other responsibilities as Commissioners as well as to our regulation of broadcasting.  For if broadcasters are not performing the local public service role they have assumed this carries implications for our policies regarding cable television, the demands of mobile radio for additional frequencies, proposals for direct satellite-to-home radio and television, and "superpower" radio stations -- to name a few.

Note on Sources

The data in this analysis has come from a variety of sources.  Nowhere is this information collected together, although most of it is publicly available.  No doubt there are other sources which should have been consulted.  And there are also probably minor errors as in any analysis that relies on statistics.  Further, circulation and revenue data are for the year 1966 -- it would be desirable to have 1967 data but it is simply not available in usable form.

Population data are drawn from the "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (1967); "County and City Data Book" (1962); "Editor and Publisher Yearbook" (1967); and "TV Factbook" (1967).  Magazine circulation was received from the individual publications.  Local media ownership as well as cross-media ownership and other business interests of the licensees are drawn from the licensee's renewal application; the ownership form (form 323) submitted to the FCC; and the listings in "Broadcasting Yearbook" (1968) and "TV Factbook" (1967).  Newspaper circulation is drawn from "Editor and Publisher Yearbook" (1967).

The determination of reception by a community of broadcast signals from stations outside the community was made by examining the engineering data available in FCC station license files, M-3 map conductivity data (predicted coverage), propagation curves, and channel studies.  Primary coverage has been defined as 2-mv/m coverage for AM stations, 1 m/m for FM, and at least "grade B" for TV.  Of course any individual community may be able to receive radio or television signals that are not as strong as those which we have used to define coverage.  Whether a community receives a signal depends in part on receiving antenna height, atmospheric and ground conductivity conditions, and quality of equipment.

Data on call sign, type of station, general manager, number of employees, frequency and power, hours of operation, network affiliation, business offices, studio and transmitter location, past and proposed commercial policy and programming, news staff, station format, news services, source of TV programs, and adherence to the NAB code have been taken from the station's renewal application.  The station's commercial time rates are reported in the "Standard Rate and Data Book." The year the station began operation is found is "broadcasting  [*40]  Yearbook" (1968).  Information on network TV clearances was provided by ABC and NBC in response to our request.  (CBS refused to provide all the data requested.)

Other sources which have been consulted include the "Americana Encyclopedia (1967) Yearbook," and "Oklahoma: A Guide to the Sooner State" (1957) (an updated version of the "WPA Writers Project Study of Oklahoma").  Chambers of Commerce supplied data.
We do not represent that we have consulted all the available materials relevant to our analysis of Oklahoma broadcasting.  To consult even the entire FCC files on a station -- the station license files going back to the beginning of the station (some of which are in storage); the ownership reports by the licensee; the general complaint files along with complaint files on fairness and political broadcasting; hearing records in which the station may have been involved; the confidential reports of financial data -- would be an impossible task.  We have been as thorough as time allowed.

Broadcasting in Selected Cities of Oklahoma

Introduction

Oklahoma is midway of the 50 States in many categories.  Its largest city, Oklahoma City, is America's 37th largest market.  Selected statistics and state rank (in parentheses) show: Population 2,512,000 (27th), area 69,919 square miles (19th), population density 33.8 per square mile (36th), and median income $4620 (39th).  Its most important economic activities are oil refining, meatpacking, electronics, agriculture, and recreation facilities.  It got its start as Indian territory (a significant factor in its subsequent historical development and present ethnic mix).  It gave America one of its most famous and beloved part-Indian citizens, Will Rogers, and was the subject of one of Rodgers and Hammerstein's most successful Broadway musicals, "Oklahoma!" It is a land of cowboys and their cattle, as well as Indians -- a land that produces oil as easily as just storms.

We would be the first to acknowledge that the following descriptions of communities, and stations' programming, may be inaccurate in some particulars.  Indeed, the inadequacies of the FCC's current data, and analytical tools, are basic to our dissatisfaction regarding its present license renewal procedure.  And our efforts to get better information from the broadcasters themselves met the refusal of many to even answer our letters.  So we have done the best we could.

In describing the communities we have relied upon Chamber of Commerce literature, and basic reference works.  And we have described only those features which are somehow unique or noteworthy.  It goes without saying that these Oklahoma cities, like their counterparts throughout the country, are also made up of motels, churches and hospitals; PTA's, Rotary clubs and bar associations; public building of sewers, schools and streets; billboards, neon signs and overhead power and telephone lines; some very rich, some very poor, and a majority who will never be either; a generation gap, racial minorities, and most shades of political opinion; little theaters, flower beds and city parks; libraries and liquor stores; those who are building and  [*41]  striving, and those who have stopped trying.  All this is summed up, perhaps, in the line from the song in "Oklahoma!" -- "We don't say we're no better than anybody else.  But we'll be danged if we ain't just as good."

Oklahoma is a slice of the American pie; it's little better or worse than the rest.  We have not attempted to describe America -- only Oklahoma.  It is a State distinguished by Indian territory origins; a late 19th century beginning; early 20th century oil, followed by the commercial marketing of natural gas; cattle and cowboys; wheat and wide-open spaces.  But the significance of these details is questionable.  For however dissimilar life in Oklahoma may be to life in New York, Washington, or San Francisco (or any of America's 10 largest cities), it has much in common with life throughout most of the geographical, continental United States.

The 11 cities we have selected represent, we believe, a representative sampling based on population and geographical distribution.  The three largest cities (Oklahoma, Tulsa, and Lawton) are included.  We have selected some cities that are relatively isolated, and others that come under the influence of nearby centers.  (Because we have analyzed the programming of each of the 10 commercial television stations we have also included reference to the Sayre and Ada stations without further description of those communities.) As with the selection of Oklahoma itself, so the selection of cities within the State was not prompted by any prior complaints or reason to believe the stations located there were above
or below average.

Ardmore

Ardmore, the county seat of Carter County in south central Oklahoma, is located midway between Dollas and Oklahoma City in the heart of the former Chickasaw Indian Nation.  It came into being when the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1887, and was further stimulated by the discovery of oil in 1912.  Its estimated 1967 population was nearly 23,000 (up from 20,000 in 1960) -- about half that of Carter County.

Like the rest of the State, Carter County has its share of oil and cattle.  It is also blessed, however, with the tourist trade brought by nearby Platt National Park, Lake Texoma, Lake Murray, the Arbuckle Reservoir, and other points of natural beauty and recreational value.

Ardmore has but one newspaper and AM radio station, and they are under common ownership.  The evening Ardmoreite has a circulation of about 11,000.  Its local AM affiliate, KVSO, operates about 117 hours a week.  They are owned by Albert Riesen, Jr., Betty Riesen Dillard, and other trustees and members of the Riesen family.

There is a television station, KXII-TV, channel 12, located about 30 miles away in the next county, with transmitter in Madill, Okla., and studios there can in Sherman, Tex. -- another 50 miles down the road.  It is controlled by the group of individuals and companies which own KWTX-TV in Waco, Tex., and is managed by its president, Mr. M. N. Bostick.  It is represented to be an "Ardmore and Sherman-Denison, Texas" station, and is in fact licensed to Ardmore.  It carries mostly NBC programming, and some from CBS.  It puts a "city grade" signal over Ardmore.  But, by and large, the city lies just outside the  [*42]  grade B coverage area of stations in Oklahoma City, Wichita Falls, Fort Worth-Dallas, and Tulsa.

There are, in total, some seven AM signals reaching Ardmore day-time, and three at night, and an additional grade B television signal.  But most of the quality television comes to Ardmore residents from distant cities by cable television.  Video Independent Theatres, Inc., 100 percent owned by RKO General (one of the major mass media and cable television owners in America), provides signals to 3,500 Ardmore subscribers from KXII, KFDX-TV Wichita Falls, KWTV Oklahoma City, KTEN Ada, KTVT and WFAA-TV Fort Worth-Dollars.  There are no translators.

Outside publications include 200-400 copies of the three news weeklies, about 70 copies of Harpers, and eight Sunday New York Times.

Assuming that KXII-TV provided Ardmore's only local TV programming during 1967, it is difficult to find that the city received much television attention.  Aside from daily news, weather, and sports programs at 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. (which would allow little time for local news from each of the cities within a claimed 425,000 population viewing area), the only preemptions during the year with possible relation to Ardmore were something called "Ardmore Birthday Party" one evening in August (the city's annual "day"), a noon-time hour-long "Carter County Junior Livestock Show," a 15-minute "Ardmore Water and Sewage Program" 10:30 one evening and a half-hour "Know Your Candidates" show on the Ardmore City Commission candidates.  The station carried regular reports from Grayson County College and Southeastern State College of Durant.  It also carries occasional reports from Oklahoma Senator Fred Harris.  KXII does carry some local programs aimed at several of the communities in its coverage area and to that extent seems to view itself as a "regional" station rather than simply as an "Ardmore" station.

Of its 116 1/2 hours broadcast during the week, KXII carried 8.7 percent news, 3.6 percent public affairs, and 6.3 percent other than entertainment and sports.  During the year it preempted regularly scheduled programs for 22 special broadcasts -- the most of any station in the State.  For the next 3 years KXII proposes 7.9 percent news, 0.84 percent public affairs and 3.4 percent other than entertainment and sports.  There is no indication why the station feels a need for this cutback.  During its composite week 14 percent of KXII's programs were from local sources, 75 percent from networks, and 15 percent were recorded programs.  KXII proposes essentially the same format for the next 3 years.

KXII determines the needs and interests of the communities it serves through the personal contacts of its almost 40 employees in those communities.  KXII also maintains a public comment log at the reception desk of the station offices.  KXII's staff includes seven administrative, six engineering, three salesmen, 15 programming staff, and seven news.  Although KXII lists seven people on its staff concerned with news, in a more detailed explanation of its news operation KXII lists 19 staff people including eight "stringers" in various nearby communities.  KXII subscribes to UPI wire and photofax, Fort Worth wire service, and the Federal Aviation Flight Service Weather.

 [*43]  KVSO, the AM radio station in Ardmore, is owned by the Albert Riesen family who live there.  The general manager is Douglas Dillard and the station has seven employees.  It programs roughly 117 hours per week -- and in the composite week presented 20 percent news, 1.3 percent public affairs and 16 percent other than entertainment and sports.  It proposes 25 percent news, 10 percent public affairs, and 17 percent other than entertainment and sports.  It characterizes its format as 63 percent country and western, folk music, jazz, and standard pops.  KVSO is an ABC radio network affiliate and AP subscriber.

KVSO determines the needs and interests of its community through meetings between KVSO management and various Ardmore groups.  An audience questionnaire was also run in the Ardmore Ardmoreite.  KVSO has one newscaster and one mobile news reporter.

General

Population (1967 census estimated)                                       22,949.
Population (1960)                                                                    20,184.
Nonwhite (1960) (Carter County)                                            10.3 percent.
Homes (Carter County)                                                           14,200.
TV homes (Carter County)                                                      12,900.
Local media                                                                             3.
Local AM stations                                                                    1.
Local FM stations                                                                    0.
Local TV stations                                                                    1.
Local newspapers                                                                   1.
Local media owners                                                                2.
Loverlapping ownership                                                          KVSO (AM)
                                                                                                with Ardmore Ardmoreite.
National publications circulation Time, 377; Newsweek,        210;
                                                                                                U.S.
(Carter County).                                                                      News, 211; Life, 810, Look, 1,164;
                                                                                                Sunday New York Times, 8;
                                                                                                Harpers, 72.
Translators                                                                              None.
CATV's                                                                                    1 (carrying KXII, Ardmore; KFDX, Wichita Falls, Tex.;
                                                                                                Oklahoma City; KTEN, Ada; KTVT, WFAA, Dallas-Fort Worth, Tex.).
Broadcast coverage

AM

Miles n1               City                                Call             Frequency            Class          Day             Night
 
80                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KWFT         620                       III-U DA-N   X
94                         Dallas, Tex                    KRLD          1080                     I-B DA-N     X                 X
                             do                                  WFAA         820                       I-A               X                 X
                             do                                  KSKY          660                       II-D              X
                             Ardmore, Okla                KVSO         1240                     IV-U            X                 X
22                         Madill, Okla                    KMAD         1550                     II-D              X
93                         Oklahoma City, Okla      KOMA         1520                     I-B DA-N     (*)

                                                                                    FM -- None TV                                                      City   A B
44                         Ada, Okla                       KTEN         10                         ABC, CBS, NBC            X
                             Ardmore, Okla. and        KXII             12                         NBC                     X
                             Sherman-Denison, Tex.
 

* Borderline coverage.

n1 Approximate city center to city center.  [*44]

Radio stations

Call sign                                            KVSO.
Type                                                 AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                           KVSO Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                   Yes.
Principal owner                                 Albert Riesen, Jr., 1/3; Betty Maurine Riesen Dillard, 1/3.
Other owners J                                 Jean Lowenstein Riesen Hughes, 2/9;
                                                          T. Fred Collins (trustee) 1/9.
Other media interests                       Ardmore Ardmoreite.
Other business interests                   None.
General manager                              Douglas C. Dillard.
Number employees                           7.
Frequency/power                              1240 kc, 1 kw-D, 250 w-N.
Hours of operation                            116.
Commercial rates                              $4.50/1 minute.
Network affiliation                             ABC.
Began operation                               1935.
Proposed maximum number of         12 (18 maximum).
commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                                 20.1
Public affairs                                     1.3.
Other non-entertainment                   6.6.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):

News                                                 25.0.
Public affairs                                     10.0.
Other non-entertainment                   6.0.
Answered inquiry                              No.
News staff                                         2.
Format                                              Country and western; folk music; jazz; standard pops, 63 percent.
News services                                  AP.
NAB Code                                         Yes.

TV stations

Call sign                                            KXII-TV.
Type                                                 VHF.
Ownership:
Licensee                                           Texoma Broadcasters, Inc.
Locally owned                                   No.
Principal owner                                 M. N. Bostick, 29.972 percent.
Other owners                                    Texas Broadcasting Co., 23.225 percent;
                                                                       
Hilton E. Howell, 9.972 percent;
                                                                       
Ross M. Sams, 9.972 percent;
                                                                       
W. W. Callan, 7.824 percent; 
                                                          W. W. Callan, Jr., 1.074 percent;
                                                                       
Diana C. Braswell, 1.074 percent; 
                                                                       
Robert E. Levy, 6.915 percent; 
                                                                       
Thomas D. Stribling, 6.378 percent; 
                                                                       
George & Ellender Chase, 3.594 percent.
Other media interests                       KLFY-TV, Lafayette, La.; KNAL, Victoria, Tex.; KBTX-TV, Bryan, Tex.;
                                                          KWTX-AM-TV, Waco, Tex.; KTBC-AM-FM-TV, Austin, Tex.
Other business interests                   L. L. Sams & Sons, Inc.; Stribling, Woodward & Greig, Insurance.
General manager                              C. H. Balding.
Number of employees                       38.
Frequency/power Channel               12.
Hours of operation                            114.
Commercial rates                              $200/hour.
Network affiliation                             NBC and CBS.
Began operation                               1956.
Proposed maximum number of         16 (some exceptions).
commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                                 8.7.
Public affairs                                     3.6.
Other non-entertainment                   6.3.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):

News                                                 7.9.
Public affairs                                     0.84.
Other non-entertainment                   3.4.
Answered inquiry                              Yes (after document was prepared).

TV network clearance:
Regular news and public affairs Cleared             10 of 16.
Special news and documentaries Cleared           15 of 21.
Special reports and bulletins Cleared                  26 of 35.

TV program sources:
Past sample week -- Hours:

Local                                                 17.
Network                                            87.
Recorded                                          12.

Proposed -- Hours:

Local                                                 15.
Network                                            87.
Recorded                                          14.
News staff                                         7.
News service                                    UPI; Fort Worth Direct Wire Service; Federal Aviation Flight Service Weather.
NAB Code                                         Yes.

 [*45]  Duncan

A community of some 20,000 people, Duncan is located about 85 miles from Oklahoma City, towards the middle of the southern part of the State.  Duncan and Stephens County are surrounded by oilfields and beef cattle ranches.  Duncan's largest employers are the DX Refinery & Halliburton Services, an international oilfield service company.  Frontier Airlines has flights to Duncan and U.S.  Highway 81 and State Highway 7 pass through the community.

Duncan is served by two local media -- AM radio station KRHD and the daily newspaper, the Duncan Banner, although Duncan also receives service from AM stations KWFT and KNIN, Wichita Falls, Tex.; WFAA, Dallas, Tex.; KTOK and KOMA, Oklahoma City, Okla.; KSWO, Lawton, WNAD, Norman, as well as TV reception from KAUZ and KFDX, Wichita Falls, Tex.; KSWO, Lawton, Okla.; and KOCO and WKY, Oklahoma City, Okla. KRHD, the local station, is owned by a group owner, R. H. Drewry stations, whose principal stockholders live in Lawton.  Drewry stations also own Kgwa/, Enid, KMID-TV, Midland, Tex., and KSWO-AM-TV in Lawton.  The Duncan Banner, with a daily circulation of over 9,500, is owned by Duncan Banner, Inc., and has no ownership relation with KRHD.

 [*46]  KRHD has eight employees and is managed by Lester Agee who serves as both station manager and chief engineer.  KRHD is on the air about 16 hours a day and characterizes its programming as 32 percent pops, 4.2 percent religious, 18 percent Top-40, 14 percent standards, 15 percent country/western, and 16.8 percent talk.  In reporting on its 118-hour composite week of past programming KRHD notes 11 1/2 hours (9.7 percent) news, 4 hours (3.3 percent) public affairs and 8 1/2 hours (7.1 percent) programming other than entertainment and sports.  KRHD proposes essentially the same percentages for the next 3 years.

For news KRHD subscribes to UPI and notes that both station manager and sales manager have mobile radios and regularly cover such news sources as the Highway Patrol, the local newspaper, police department, and county sheriff.  Examination of KRHD's program logs shows daily 5-minute news shows every hour beginning at 7 in the morning, with 15 minutes at 7:30 a.m. and noon.  Most of KRHD's programming is recorded entertainment -- disc jockey shows.  Once or twice a day there is a Trading Post program for local exchange of articles.  KRHD carries some of the Duncan High School sports events and once a year broadcasts the Jaycees radio auction.  Church programs are carried on Sunday morning.  Occasionally agricultural programs such as the 4-H Club Review or stockyard reports are carried.

KRHD reports that 3.3 percent of the hours in the composite week were devoted to public affairs.  Yet its program logs show no programs logged as public affairs.  In fact the Commission's staff wrote KRHD on March 15, 1968, pointing out certain logging errors which KRHD corrected.  (This incident points up one of the severe problems in the Commission's renewal process.  The renewal form asks the licensee to analyze the programming he presented in the composite week.  We do not have sufficient staff to do much spot checking of the logging and analysis of the licensee, much less to actually monitor programming and compare against the program log.  Yet the Commission depends upon this information in making judgments as to renewing station licenses.)

KRHD does offer illustrations of its public affairs programming -- Play Back (produced by NORAD), a special road and weather show, the Chamber of Commerce Public Affairs program, Special Report (produced by NASA), and broadcasts once a year of the local Veterans Day services, high school graduation, a program on the National Guard summer camp, the VFW speech contest, and the American Legion's Ringing the Bells for Freedom program.
In determining the needs and interests of its audience KRHD notes that "key personnel * * * regularly confer with representatives of numerous organizations * * *" and some 23 organizations are listed.

KRHD lists the following significant needs and interests along with programs it proposes to provide.

(1) Market news, weather information, information on improved agriculture methodology, and information on current conditions in the oil industry;

(2) Information activities of the school system and public library;

 [*47]  (3) News broadcasts and special features on significant developments relating to the industrial and business activity of the area;

(4) Sports and recreation -- 25 minutes of sports per day along with play-by-play of local sports items;  

(5) Government affairs -- regular news coverage of local and county commissions along with a certain amount of in-depth interpretation and opinion;

(6) Weather and news -- presented once an hour -- regular programming suspended during severe storms;

(7) Religion -- a sampling of programs from different faiths.

Except for news, weather, sports and religion KRHD's proposals indicate no specific amount of time proposed to be devoted to these interests, nor is there any evidence from the program logs that such programs were presented in the last year.

In summary, KRHD is doing well as a business venture.  As Duncan's only station, it offers a service of recorded music with a little news, weather, sports, and religious programming.  Its format is typical of the radio stations we have examined.  The question is whether, as Duncan's only local station, KRHD could and should do better.

General

Population (1967 census estimated)                    20,209.
Population (1960)                                                20,009.
Nonwhite (1960) (Stephens County)                   2.6 percent.
Homes (Stephens County)                                   13,800.
TV homes (Stephens County)                              12,900.
Local media                                                          2.
Local AM stations                                                 1.
Local FM stations                                                 0.
Local TV stations                                                 0.
Local newspapers                                                1.
Local media owners                                             2.
Overlapping ownership                                        None.
National publications circulation                           Time, 221; Newsweek, 211; U.S. News, 205; Life, 685; Look, 852;
(Stephens County).                                                         Sunday New York Times, 13; HarPers, 62.

Translators                                                           None.
CATV's                                                                 Application for franchise pending.

Broadcast coverage

AM

Miles n1                City                                Call                       Frequency            Class                    Day             Night
  
50                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KWFT                  620                       III-U DA-N             X
137                       Dallas, Tex                    WFAA                   820                       I-A                         X                 X
                             Duncan, Okla                 KRHD                   1550                     III-U                       X                 X
76                         Oklahoma City, Okla      KTOK 1                1000                     II-U DA-2               (*)
76                         do                                  KOMA                  1520                     I-B DA-N               X                 X
50                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KNIN                                                                              X
25                         Lawton, Okla                 KSWO                                                                            X
55                         Norman, Okla                WNAD                                               640 II-D                 X

FM -- None

TV                                                                                                                        City                       A                 B

50                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KAUZ                   6                           CBS                                         X
50                         do                                  KFDX                   3                           NBC                                         X
28                         Lawton, Okla                 KSWO                  7                           ABC                                         X
76                         Oklahoma City, Okla      KOCO                  5                           ABC                      (*)                X
76                         do                                  WKY                     4                           NBC                                         X

Borderline coverage.

n1 Approximate city center to city center.  [*48]

Radio stations

Call sign                                                     KRHD.
Type                                                           AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                     Duncan Broadcasting Co., Inc.
Locally owned                                            No.
Principal owner                                           R. H. Drewry, 62.1 percent.
Other owners                                              Jack E. Warkentin, 4.65 percent;
                                                                   Edith H. Scott, 13.95 percent;
                                                                   James T. Warkentin, 4.65 percent;
                                                                   Judith E. Warkentin, 4.65 percent,
                                                                   John Halliburton, 1 percent.
Other media interests                                 KSWO-AM-TV, Lawton; KGWA,  Muskogee; KMID-TV, Midland, Tex.
Other business interests                            None.
Station manager                                         Lester A. Agee.
Number of employees                                8.
Frequency/power                                       1350 kc, 250w-D, 100w-N.
Hours of operation                                      118.
Commercial rates                                       $3.60/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                       None.
Began operation                                         1947.
Proposed maximum number of                   18 (some exceptions).
commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                                          9.7.
Public affairs                                               3.3.
Other non-entertainment                            7.1.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                          10.0.
Public affairs                                               4.0.
Other non-entertainment                            7.0.
Answered inquiry                                        No.
News staff                                                  2 part-time.
Format                                                        Pops, 32 percent; top 40, 18 percent; religious, 4.2 percent;
                                                                   talk, 16.8 per- cent; country and western, 15.0 percent.
News services                                            UPI.
NAB Code                                                  Yes.

Enid

Enid is Oklahoma's fourth largest city (1960 population 38,859), located about 60 miles north of the Oklahoma City area, along the old Chisholm Trial.  It is surrounded by wheat (its 67-million bushel elevators are the State's largest), and sits over oil (there is an oil and gas refinery east of town).  It is the home of Phillips University, and Vance Air Force Base is located just southwest of Enid.  It is a major highway junction, is served by an airline and three railroads, and is the county seat of Garfield County.

Garfield County's 1960 population was 52,975 -- about the same as 1950.  But in a State in which all but about a dozen counties (of 77) lost population, that statistic, its 50-persons-per-square-mile population density, and $4,893 median family income, place it in the top 15 percent of Oklahoma counties.

Enid's needs for local information are provided by two local newspapers (News and Eagle), two AM radio stations (KGWA and  [*49]  KCRC), and KCRC-FM.  Both newspapers and two of the stations, however, are owned by the same group: the Enid Publishing Co.  The other station is owned by a nonresident.  The Enid News and Eagle, published every day except Monday, has a Sunday circulation of over 24,000 (morning over 17,000), which would indicate significant circulation in the surrounding area, there being about 14,000 family units in Enid (1960 census).

The three network television signals from Oklahoma City can be received off the air throughout most of Garfield County.  The educational television station puts a weaker signal into the county.  There is a cable television system operating with but 167 subscribers which supplies nine signals from Oklahoma City, Tulsa, and Wichita, Kans.  (It is owned by Hazard E. Reeves, Reeves Broadcasting Corp., which also owns television and radio stations in Huntington, Charleston, and Baltimore, and cable systems in Alabama, Maine, Kentucky, and South Carolina.) There is no translator service.  Outside publications include 400-700 copies of each of the news weeklies, over 100 copies of Harpers, and 27 copies of the Sunday New York Times.

KGWA is one of the R. H. Drewry group of stations (KSWO-TV-AM, Lawton; KRHD, Duncan; KMID-TV, Midland, Tex.).  Mr. Drewry lives in Lawton.  The resident "President-General Manager" is Allan P. Page, who also serves as the District Director for the National Association of Broadcasters.  He has a 10 percent ownership interest in the station, and an application for a new AM in Anadarko, Okla.  (about 60 miles southwest of Oklahoma City).

KGWA is on the air about 120 hours a week, and has 15.6 percent news (18:47), 1.8 percent public affairs (2:12), and 12.7 percent all other than sports and entertainment (15:15).  The format is described in the renewal form as "basically news on the hour and middle of the road popular music." In fact, it is much more.  There are brief daily editorials on local issues and quotations from newspaper editorial opinion, a morning 5-minute commentary by Department of Agriculture extension agents, market reports, about three brief book reviews a day by the local librarian, a noon-time 5 minutes of homemaking suggestions ("Here's Heloise"), a daily 50-minute 11:05 a.m. audience participation show that's been running for 12 years, a 15-minute morning "Family Worship Hour," and 5 minutes of morning physical fitness tips and answers to sports questions ("Bud Wilkinson Show").  There are weekly shows including interviews from Washington, D.C., a NASA program, a U.S.  Chamber of Commerce discussion of economic issues, a fortnightly panel program on scouting activities in northwest Oklahoma, a 15-minute librarian's show, a 15-minute report from Phillips University, Sunday school and church services and news of church activities.  Live coverage was provided of over 200 local sporting events from more than 60 area schools.

The station ascertains the needs and interests of its listening public by regularly conferring with representatives of numerous organizations (and examples ae listed).  It received several hundred answers to a cash-prize contest requesting letters beginning "If I were a manager of KGWA I would * * *." It sometimes asks for listener comment  [*50]  about preference between a new program and the old show it replaced.

KCRC-AM-FM is locally owned by Enid Radiophone Co. -- the same Enid families that own the Enid Publishing Co. Milton B. Garber owns 33.8 percent and is president; John W. Taylor owns 49.8 percent and is vice president; other members of the family own the remainder.  Pat Murphy, the general manager and treasurer, has no ownership interest.

KCRC's programming, according to its renewal form, is 50 percent standard, pop, adult music, 18 percent news and news commentaries, 10 percent country and western music, 10 percent sports, and 12 percent other.  It is an ABC contemporary network affiliate, and relies heavily upon the network's programming.  The ABC "Breakfast Club" is carried in the morning from 9 to 10, the news is carried at 55 minutes past the hour, and there was generally during 1967 an hour or more in the evening of Alex Drier, ABC Report, Tom Harmon Sports, Paul Harvey News, Schenkle Sports, Bob Considine, ABC News, and Edward P. Morgan.  It carries the St. Louis Cardinals baseball games, and many college football and basketball games.  It carries local news occasionally at 25 minutes after the hour, 10 minutes at noon and 15 minutes at 6 p.m. Otherwise, the station's renewal form and logs would seem to indicate somewhat less regular local programming and special features than KGWA.  It provides little detail on its survey of local needs, aside from the comment that "the management * * * frequently interview citizens * * *" and that "questionnaires" are used.

The owner of the two local newspapers and one AM station, KCRC, has also been granted by the FCC the city's only FM station, KCRC-FM.  That station just began operations a little over a year ago, however, and its renewal is not before us at this time.

General

Population (1967 census estimated)                    44,144.
Population (1960)                                                38,859.
Nonwhite (1960) (Garfield County)                      3.7 percent.
Homes (1967) (Garfield County)                          18,300.
TV homes (1967) (Garfield County)                     17,200.
Local media                                                          5.
Local AM stations                                                 2.
Local FM stations                                                 1.
Local TV stations                                                 0.
Local newspapers                                                2.
Local media owners                                             2.
Overlapping ownership                                        KCRC-AM-FM, with Enid Eagle and Enid News.
National publications circulation                           Time, 706; Newsweek, 576; U.S. News, 366; Life, 1,627;
 (garfield Country).                                               Look, 3,-459; Sunday New York Times, 27; Harpers, 113.

Translators None.
CATV's 1.                                                             (Carrying WKY-TV, KOCO-TV,
                                                                             KWTV, KETA, all Oklahoma City;
                                                                             KOTV, KVOO-TV, Tulsa; KARD-
                                                                             TV, KAKE-TV, Wichita, Kans.,
                                                                             and KTVH, Hutchinson, Wichita).
 [*51]

Broadcast coverage AM

Miles n1                City                                Call             Frequency            Class                    Day             Night

                   Enid, Okla                      KGWA        960                       III-U DA-1              X                    X
                             do                                  KCRC         1390                     III-U DA-1              X                    X
68                         Oklahoma City, Okla      WKY           930                       III-U DA-N             X                    X
                             do                                  KOMA         1520                     1-B DA-N              (*)                   X
110                       Tulsa, Okla                    KRMG        740                       II-U DA-2              X

FM

                             Enid, Okla                      KCRC                                      C

TV
                                                                                      City                                                   A                    B
68                         Oklahoma City, Okla      KOCO         5                           ABC                                         X
                             do                                  KWTV         9                           CBS                                        X
                             do                                  WKY           4                           NBC                                        X
                             do                                  KETA          13                         Ed.                                          (**)
 

** Application Pending.  If granted, would be grade B.
* Borderline coverage.
n1 Approximate city center to city center.

Radio Stations

Call sign                                  KCRC.
Type                                        AM.
Ownership:                                     Licensee Enid Radiophone Co.
Locally owned                         Yes.
Principal owner                       John W. Taylor, 49.8 percent.
Other owners                          Milton B. Garber, 33.8 percent; Lucy M. Garber, 0.2 percent;
                                                Lucy Ann Thompson, 10 percent; A. F. Butts, 0.2 percent; Martin D. Garber, 6 percent.

Other media interests              KCRC-FM, Enid; Enid Publishing Co.; Enid Eagle and Enid News.
Other business interests         None.
General manager                    Pat Murphy.
Number employees                 14.
Frequency/power                    1390 kc, 1 kw U.
Hours of operation                  121.
Commercial rates                    $4.25/1 minute.
Network affiliation                    ABC.
Began operation                      1926.
Proposed maximum number    18 (some exceptions).
of commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                       17.39.
Public affairs                           3.76.
Other non-entertainment         8.16.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                       20.0.
Public affairs                           4.0
Other non-entertainment         8.5.
Answered inquiry                     No.
News staff                               4 part-time.
Format                                     50 percent standard-pop; 10 percent country and western;
                                                           
18 percent news and commentaries;
                                                           
10 percent sporting news; 12 percent other.
News services                         AP.
NAB Code                               Yes.

Call sign                                  KGWA.
Type                                        AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                  Public Broadcasting Service, Inc.
Locally owned                         No.
Principal owner                       R. H. Drewry, 64.5 percent.
Other owners                          Allan Page, 10.0 percent; Jack E. Warkentin, 5.167 percent;
                                                           
Ella Pratt Page, 10 percent; James T. Warkentin, 5.167 percent;
                                                Judith W. Bryan, 5.167 percent.
Other media interests              KSWO-AM-TV, Lawton; KRHD, Duncan; KMID-TV, Midland, Tex.;
                                                applicant for AM station, Anadarko, Okla.
Other business interests         None.
General manager                    Allan Page.
Number employees                 12.
Frequency/power                    960 kc, 1 kw U.
Hours of operation                  118.
Commercial rates                    $4.50/1 minute.
Network affiliation                    None.
Began operation                      1950.
Proposed maximum number    Normal 18 (some exceptions).
of commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                       15.6.
Public affairs                           1.8.
Other non-entertainment         12.7.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                       15.6
Public affairs                           1.8.
Other non-entertainment         12.7.
Answered inquiry                     No.
News staff                               1 full-time; 1 part-time.
Format                                     Popular music, 60 percent; news 15 percent; religious, 10 percent;
 
                                               sports and other talk, 15 percent.
News services                         UPI.
NAB Code                               Yes.

 [*52]  Guymon

Guymon, Okla., lies near the center of the three-county, 165-by-34-mile "panhandle" of western Oklahoma -- bounded by Colorado and Kansas on the north, New Mexico on the west, and Texas on the south.  It is the county seat of Texas County, with 1960 population of 14,162 placing it about midway of Oklahoma's 77 counties.  It is flat country, sparsely populated (no more than a handful of Oklahoma counties have fewer than its seven persons per square mile), richly populated with cattle (nearly one million head within 100 miles of Guymon) and natural gas (the Guymon-Hugoton field is said to be the world's largest, with pipelines reaching to Los Angeles, Chicago, and Detroit).  It is also a grain producing area, with some 100,000 acres under irrigation.  There is a beef processing plant which spends locally $40 million annually, several gas processing plants, and a $25 million dam and reservoir under construction.  The annual per capita income for the county places it within the top 10 percent of the State's counties.

 [*53]  Guymon's local informational needs are provided by its one daytime only station, KGYN, and one newspaper, the five-day-a-week Guymon Herald (circulation 3,328).  In fact, there are no other radio or conventional television signals of acceptable quality available in Guymon from any other city, day or night.  Television service is provided by "translators" that rebroadcast the three network television signals from Amarillo (roughly 100 miles to the south).  Cable television service provides the same signals to some 1,400 homes in Guymon (a system owned by Curtis M. Faris, who also has an interest in a cable system in Alvis, Okla.).  Outside magazines coming into Texas County include about 150 copies of each of the three news weeklies, one copy of the New York Times daily (seven Sunday), and 17 copies of Harpers.

Station KGYN is owned by T. M. Raburn, Jr. (97.6 percent), his wife and his brother.  Raburn is a long-time resident of Guymon (since 1928), has been associated with the station since organizing it in 1946, and is also engaged in farming.  He is the sole owner of a company applying for a new station in Sapulpa, Okla. (outside of Tulsa, in the northeast quarter of the State), but has no other media interests.

The station is on the air 84 hours a week.  It broadcasts 12 hours and 25 minutes of news (17 percent), 54 minutes of public affairs (0.7 percent), and 7 hours and 55 minutes all other (10.8 percent).  Its principal programming, recorded music; is selected from its 2,500 albums and 6,000 records on a format equally divided between country and western, current pops, and standard pops.

It represents that its policy is to broadcast "all important facets of a public controversy so the public will be fully informed and able to make knowledgeable decisions * * *." To do this, its regularly scheduled programming includes three local area newscasts, and weekly "Chamber of Commerce Speaks," and Four-H Club programs.  There are also farm market and hourly weather reports, 5 minutes of news on the hour and headlines on the half-hour.  (Religious programming includes "The Panhandle Baptist program" and the "Word of Truth" from the Bible Baptist Church of Elkhart, Kans.) There is one full-time newsman (reportedly assisted by all members of the staff, who have been taught to be aware of newsworthy items), a UPI ticker, the Oklahoma Weather Wire Service, and calls to local officials, hospitals, police, and the highway patrol.  No real survey of community needs has been felt necessary, in view of the fact that the owner and manager have "established rapport with leaders of local institutions and organizations * * *."

General

Population (1967 census estimated)          8,098.
Population (1960)                                       5,768.
Nonwhite (1960)                                         0.2 percent.
Homes (Texas County)                              4,700.
TV homes (Texas County)                         4,200.
Local media                                                2.
Local AM stations                                       1.
Local FM stations                                       0.
Local TV stations                                        0.
Local newspapers                                      1.
Local media owners                                   2.
Overlapping ownership                              None.
National publications circulation                 Time, 171; Newsweek, 132; U.S. News, 144; Life, 419; Look, 605;
                                                                   Sunday New York Times, 7; Harpers, 17.
Translators                                                 3 (carrying KGNC, KVII, KFDA, Amarillo, Tex.).
CATV's 1                                                    (carrying KGNC, KVII, KFDA, Amarillo, Tex.).

 [*54]  Broadcast coverage AM

Miles           City                       Call                       Frequency            Class                    Day             Night
                   Guymon, Okla      KGYN                   1220                     II-D                       X                 (*)

FM-None

TV-None

* Station has CP for a 10 kw. facility on 1210 kc.

Radio stations

Call sign                                            KGYN.
Type                                                 AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                           Plains Broadcasting Co., Inc.
Locally owned                                   Yes.
Principal owner                                 T. M. Raburn, Jr., 97.6 percent.
Other owners                                    Morine Raburn, 1.2 percent; Louis C. Raburn, 1.2 percent.
Other media interests                       Applicant for AM station, Sapulpa, Okla.
Other business interests                   Farming Resources Development Corp.
Station manager                               Herb Noyes.
Number employees                           10.
Frequency/power                              1220 kc, 1 kw-D (CP 1210 kc, 10 kw, Da-N, U).
Hours of operation                            84.
Commercial rates                              $3.70/1 minute.
Network affiliation                             None.
Began operation                               1948.
Proposed maximum number of         18 (some exceptions).
commercial minutes/hour.

Program types:
Past sample week (percent):

News                                                 17.0.
Public affairs                                     0.7.
Other non-entertainment                   10.8.

Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                 20.0.
Public affairs                                     1.7.
Other non-entertainment                   10.9.
Answered inquiry                              No.
News staff                                         1 full-time, other staff part-time.
Format                                              Current pops, 33 1/3 percent; country and western, 33 1/3 percent;
                                                          stand-ard pops, 33 1/3 percent.
News services                                  UPI.
NAB Code                                         Yes.

 [*55]  Holdenville

One of the three cities which make up the rich tri-city area of east central Oklahoma is Holdenville, Okla.  (The others are Seminole and Wewoka.) It lies approximately 77 miles southeast of Oklahoma City.  Holdenville is the county seat of Hughes County, and according to a 1965 estimate, has a population of 6,100.  The economy of the area is principally sustained by agriculture and oil production.  Local industries include concrete companies, mattress companies and donut factories.  The city is serviced by two railroads and airline connections to Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Dallas, and Fort Worth daily.
Mass communications for Holdenville include one newspaper, the Holdenville Daily News, with a circulation of 3,650; a tri-city radio station, KWSH; a local radio station, KVYL; and service from seven television stations.  Although a cable television franchise for ten stations has been obtained, the cable as yet is not in operation.

Since its inception, station KVYL has operated as the city's only AM station. Disk jockeys Rex Cooper, Bill Anderson, and Don Hopson provide listeners 82 hours, 15 minutes a week of gospel, Country and western, and popular music, with a smattering of news.  Indeed, the proposed programming includes only 4.74 percent news -- one of the State's lowest news proposals.  Only 1.23 percent of programming is public affairs, and the 18.9 percent all other than entertainment and sports is, in fact, mostly religious music.

KVYL broadcasts 1 hour and 1 minute a week of such public interest programs as: "Social Security News," "Advances in Real Estate," "Doctor Medical," "Ideas for Better Living," weekly livestock reports, and religious programs such as the daily morning devotional program, "The evangelist," "Tony Adams," "The Witness," and "Be Still and Know."

Local needs are determined by inviting comments on individual preferences as to music and programs.  The station claims close communication with the city government, religious and social clubs.  Future programming plans include a trading post for citizens who want to sell and buy various articles, sports broadcasting, and an educational program based on new scientific discoveries.

The 3 hours and 54 minutes a week of news consists of a series of three 5-minute local and three 5-minute national broadcasts, and seven 1-minute weather reports daily.  KVYL employs no full-time newsman.  KVYL is a subscriber to UPI's radio wire service.

General

Population (1967 census estimated)                             5,735.
Population (1960)                                                          5,712.
Nonwhite (1960) (Hughes County)                                13.9 percent.
Homes (Hughes County)                                                           4,400.
TV homes (Hughes County)                                          4,100.
Local media                                                                   2.
Local AM stations                                                          1.
Local FM stations                                                          0.
Local TV stations                                                           0.
Local newspapers                                                         1.
Local media owners                                                       2.
Overlapping ownership                                                  None.
National publications circulation                                    Time, 43; Newsweek, 53; U.S. News, 47;
(Hughes County).                                                          Life, 148; Look, 336; Sunday New York Times, 2; Harpers, 17.
Translators                                                                    None.
CATV's                                                                           Has franchise, not in operation.

[*56]  Broadcast coverage AM

Miles n1                City                                Call             Frequency            Class                   Day             Night

7                           Holdenville, Okla           KVYL          1350                        III-D                    X
                             Wewoka, Okla               KWSH        1260                        III-U DA-N          X                       X
                             Tulsa, Okla                    KRMG        740                           II-U DA-2          X

                                                                   FM-None TV                                                         City             A B
                                                                                     
27                         Ada, Okla                       KTEN         10                             ABC, CBS, NBC   X
73                         Oklahoma, Okla             KOCO         5                               ABC                  X
73                                                               KWTV         9                               CBS                                    X
                                                                   WKY           4                               NBC                                    X
79                         Tulsa, Okla                    KOTV         6                               CBS                                    (*)
                                                                   KTUL          8                               ABC                                     X
                                                                   KETA          13                              Ed.                                     X
 

* Borderline coverage.
n1 Approximate city center to city center.

Radio stations

Call sign                                                     KVYL.
Type                                                           AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                     Canadian River Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                            Yes.
Principal owner                                           N. Don Hopson, 100 percent.
Other owners                                              None.
Other media interests                                 None.
Other business interests                            None.
Station manager                                         N. Don Hopson.
Number employees                                    3 1/2.
Frequency/power                                       1370 kc, 500 w-D.
Hours of operation                                      82.
Commercial rates                                       $3.25/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                       None.
Began operation                                         1963.
Proposed maximum number of                   18 (some exceptions).
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News 4.74.
Public affairs 1.23.
Other non-entertainment 18.9.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                          4.74.
Public affairs                                               1.23.
Other non-entertainment                            18.9.
Answered inquiry                                        No.
News staff                                                  All employees part-time.
Format                                                        Country and gospel, 40 percent; popular music and top 40, 60 percent.
News services                                            UPI.
NAB Code                                                  No.

 [*57]  Lawton

Lawton is the third largest city in Oklahoma and is located in the southwestern corner of the State.  The estimated 1965 population of Lawton and the surrounding Comanche County is 99,000 (29,400 homes), of which roughly 12 percent are nonwhite.  In 1960 Lawton was the 247th largest city in our Nation.  Lawton is located near Fort Sill which is a large military base.  Cameron State Agricultural College is also located in Lawton.

Lawton has six local media sources -- morning and evening daily newspapers, three radio stations (KCCO, KLAW-FM, and KSWO), and a TV station (KSWO-TV).  The newspapers, the Press (circulation 11,249) and the Constitution (circulation 16,101) are jointly owned, as are an AM and the TV station (KSWO and KSWO-TV).  (These two stations are owned by a group owner -- R. H. Drewry Stations.)

Lawton also receives grade B, TV coverage from two Wichita Falls, Tex., stations -- KAUZ-TV and KFDX-TV.  Primary radio coverage is provided by three other AM stations -- KWFT (CBS) and KNIN (NBC), Wichita Falls, Tex., and WFAA (NBC, ABC), Dallas, Tex. Within Comanche County are circulated 3425 copies of Look and 66 copies of the Sunday New York Times.

Lawton receives all three TV networks -- its own station is affiliated with ABC and the two Wichita Falls stations are affiliated with CBS and NBC. KSWO radio is an ABC affiliate as is KLAW-FM.

KSWO describes its programming as mostly (62 percent) pops -- that is, disc jockey shows made up of standard, middle-of-the-road, popular music records.  It is 20 percent talk, or open mike call-in programs.  It lists 10 percent as standard (which is not distinguished from pops) music, 4 percent country and western music, and 4 percent religious.

During the composite week (126 program hours) KSWO broadcast 24 hours, 31 minutes of news (19.4 percent), and 1 hour, 52 minutes (1.5 percent) of public affairs.  However, the bulk of this public affairs programming was an open-mike talk show.  The station reported no additional programming in the other category (other than entertainment and sports).  This means that the program log throughout the day is made up of little more than the names of a series of disc jockeys: the "Ron Kirby Show," "Ken Koonce Show," "Country and Western Show" (2 to 3 p.m.), "Woody Woodward Show," "Jim Clayton Show," and "Dreamsville" (10:05 to 11:56 p.m.).

The broadcast day begins and ends with two minutes of meditation.  Weather information is generally broadcast at 20 and 40 minutes after the hour (1 minute), news at 30 minutes after the hour (1 minute), and sports at 45 minutes after the hour (1 minute).  The ABC network news feed is run at 55 minutes after the hour (5 minutes including commercials), except during the afternoon, and local news is generally carried for 5 minutes on the hour (10 to 15 minutes, three times a day).  Perhaps four "ABC Reports" (3 minutes) are carried throughout the day.  Ten minutes of network news is broadcast at 7:50 a.m., 5:30 p.m., and 11 p.m., and 15 minutes at noon.  A "Job Hunt" show is logged (once for 15 seconds) about a half-dozen times through the  [*58]  day.  There is a 5-minute "Farm Report" at 12:30 p.m., and a couple 2-minute stock market reports.

On the air since 1956, KCCO is a daytime-only AM station, Lawton's second radio station in terms of its birth date and also in terms of its audience.  The station is likely considered by its listeners as a pleasant backdrop for their daytime activities.  Its format is dominated by contemporary pops-standard music; selections from 400 albums and 400 singles of show tunes, jazz, acceptable rock and roll, and occasional country and western and Latin American titles are played fairly steadily all day long from sunrise to sunset.

KCCO states in its renewal application that it is the only radio station in Lawton which emphasizes local news.  It broadcasts 5-minute news shows every hour on the hour, with a 15-minute newscast from 7:45 to 8 a.m. Just over 12 1/2 percent of KCCO's total programming consists of news.  The station's information-gathering resources consist of one news director, two part-time assistants, a subscription to the Associated Press wire service, and affiliation with the Indian Nations network.

Beyond this regular format, KCCO offers "Around Town," a daily hour of community news of special interest to women, broadcast at 9 a.m. Five minutes of releases from the Fort Sill Public Information Office are broadcast each day.  The licensee alleges in his renewal application that he has initiated forum programs explaining concerns of the community, but there is not much elaboration of this claim.
KCCO conforms to the NAB Code which permits 18 minutes of commercials per hour, except the station says, under emergency conditions, when it permits up to 20 minutes.

The station's management checked its programming format against the community's own conception of its needs and interests by means of a survey questionnaire, sent out at random to an unspecified number of recipients, an unspecified number and percentage of which responded.  The survey asked respondents to identify themselves by sex, age, and income classification, but not by name.  It asked when respondents did their radio listening, what kind of news programming and music they liked most, and when and how they liked such programming presented.  The results of the survey tended to confirm the compatibility of the station's current format with community tastes and preferences.  Regrettably, the survey did not ask respondents to suggest varieties of programs beyond the dee-jay and news shows which are KCCO's staple.

KLAW is an FM station owned by 10 residents of Lawton and managed by Jerry A. Caddell.  On the air 125 hours a week the station's format is 65 percent standard popular, 30 percent semi-classical and 5 percent classical.  For the composite week the station broadcast 3.35 percent news, 0.32 percent public affairs, and 1.10 percent all other except entertainment and sports.  For the next three years KLAW proposes 10 percent news, 1.1 percent public affairs, and 1.1 percent all other. KLAW is affiliated with the Cowboy Network and the American FM Radio Network.  KLAW's staple is music broadcast in stereo with occasional interruptions for news and commercials.  As a sideline  [*59]  KLAW provides a leased background music service to a Muzak operation.

After a Commission staff's inquiry, KLAW amended its renewal application to indicate that it had contacted a variety of community groups in Lawton regarding its proposed programming.  In addition to music in stereo, news and weather, and local or collegiate sports broadcasts, KLAW promises to broadcast (for unspecified amounts of time): "Our Changing World"; "Washington Report"; "Master Control" -- a 30-minute interview/music show; "Viewpoint" -- a 30-minute discussion program; "Music To Remember" -- a 30-minute program of hymns; "Patterns" -- a short inspirational message program; and "Messiah" -- a live broadcast in stereo -- all to serve the needs and interests of the community.

KLAW's news operation includes (of a total of nine station employees) one news director; five announcers; a newsroom for writing and editing news; a telephone for gathering news and weather information; and subscription to AP and the American FM network.
KSWO-TV is an ABC affiliate in Lawton owned, as is KSWO radio, by R. H. Drewry stations and managed by Paul N. Goode.  In a composite week of over 106 broadcast hours KSWO programmed 6.7 percent news, 3.3 percent public affairs and 0 percent all other except entertainment and sports with 8.5 percent local, 71 percent network, and 20.5 percent recorded.  For the next 3 years the station proposes 7 percent news, 2.3 percent public affairs, and 0 percent other than entertainment and sports with 12.5 percent local, 70 percent network, and 17.5 percent recorded.

KSWO-TV has 32 employees, four administrative, five sales, eight engineering, and 15 programming.  The news staff includes a news director, one local news reporter, one area news reporter, and two announcers.  The station subscribes to UPI and the Western Union Regional Weather Network.

In determining the needs and interests of its community KSWO indicates that stockholders and employees are active in a wide variety of community groups from whom comments are solicited.  These groups are then simply listed.  The needs of the community are expressed in exactly the same words and paragraphs as for radio station KSWO, except that agricultural needs and sports/recreation are excluded.  Programs KSWO-TV will put on to serve the needs of its community are noted as "Mid-Day" (30-minute interview feature daily); "News/Feature Specials" (two to five per year); museum specials; all ABC public affairs and network news; "Big Picture" (produced by U.S. Army).  During the sample period KSWO cleared seven of seven ABC network regular news and public affairs programs; 27 of 27 special news programs and documentaries; and seven of eight special reports and bulletins -- one of the best clearance records of any station examined.

General

Population (1965 census estimated, Comanche Country)                99,000.
Population (1960)                                                                             90,803.
Nonwhite (1960)                                                                               11.8 percent.
Homes (1967)                                                                                   29,400.
TV homes (1967)                                                                              27,600.
Local media                                                                                      6.
Local AM stations                                                                             2.
Local FM stations                                                                             1.
Local TV stations                                                                              1.
Local newspapers                                                                             2.
Local media owners                                                                          4.
Overlapping ownership                                                                     TV-AM station KSWO.
                                                                                                          Morning and evening newspapers(without broadcast properties).
National publications circulation                                                       Time, 1,406; Newsweek, 733; U.S.News, 463; Life, 2,176; Look, 3,475;
                                                                                                          Sunday New York Times, 66; Harpers, 66.
Translators                                                                                       None.
CATV's                                                                                              2 franchises, none operating.

 [*60]  Broadcast coverage

AM

Miles n1                City                                Call             Frequency                    Class                    Day             Night 
48                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KWFT         620                                III-U                       X                 X
                                                                   KNIN          990                                II-U DA-2              X
                                                                   KRTN         1290                              II-U DA-N              (*)
165                       Dallas, Tex                   WFAA         820                                I-A                         X                 X
                             Lawton, Okla                 KCCO         1050                              II DA-D                  X
                                                                   KSWO        1380                              III-U DA-2              X                 X
                                                                   FM
                             Lawton, Okla                 KLAW                                                C
                                                                   TV
                                                                                                                                                          City             A B
                             Lawton, Okla                 KSWO        7                                    ABC                      X
48                         Wichita Falls, Tex          KAUZ          6                                    CBS                                         X
do                                                               KFDX          3                                    NBC                      X
 

* Borderline coverage.
n1 Approximate city center to city center.

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                                  KCCO
Type                                                                                        AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                                  Progressive Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                                                         Yes.
Principal owner                                                                       Gerald B. Downing, 51.67 percent.
Other owners                                                                          Ross B.Baker, 15 percent; Russell G.Jones, 16.67 percent; Louise Hill Downing, 16.67 percent.
Other media interests                                                              None.
Other business interests                                                         None.
General Manager                                                                    Ross B. Baker.
Number of employees                                                              12 -- 1 staff announcer, 2 engineers, 1 news director, 2 part-time newsmen, 1 bookkeeper, 1                                                                                                 manager, 2 salesmen/announcers, 1 program director, 1 traffic manager/announcer.
Frequency/power                                                                    1050 kc, 250 w.
Hours operation                                                                      84.
Commercial rates                                                                    $5/1 minute spot.
Network affiliation                                                                    Indian Nations Network.
Began operation                                                                      1956.
Proposed Maximum Number of         -                                     18 normal (20 during emergencies).
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                                       12.6.
Public Affairs                                                                           0.0.
Other non-entertainment                                                         7.5.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                                       12.6.
Public affairs                                                                           0.3.
Other non-entertainment                                                         7.1.
Answered inquiry                                                                     No.
News staff                                                                               1 news director; 2 part-time assistants.
Format                                                                                     75 percent contemporary.
News services                                                                         AP.
NAB Code                                                                               Yes.
Call sign                                                                                  KLAW-FM.
Type                                                                                        FM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                                  Security Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                                                         Yes.
Principal owner                                                                       10 owners equally divided.
Other owners                                                                          Peter B. King, 10 percent; Grover B. White, 10 percent; Floyd W. Kennedy, Jr., 10 percent;                                                                                            Reginald C. Brown, 10 percent; Jerry E. Mustain, 10 percent; Henry P. Weddle, 10 percent;                                                                                        W.Clyde Shelton, 10 percent; J. C. Kennedy, 10 percent; Exall English, 10 percent; Mrs. Lucille                                                                                              P. English,    10 percent.
Other media interests                                                              None.
Other business interests                                                         None.
General manager                                                                    Jerry Caddell.
Number employees                                                                 9.
Frequency/power                                                                    101.5 mc., 28.5 kw.
Hours operation                                                                      125.
Commercial rates                                                                    $5/1 minute spot.
Network affiliation                                                                    ABC FM; Cowboy-Network.
Began operation                                                                      1964.
Proposed maximum number of  
commercial minutes/hour.                                                                 12.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                                       3.35.
Public affairs                                                                           0.32.
Other non-entertainment                                                         1.1.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                                       10.0.
Public affairs                                                                           1.0.
Other non-entertainment                                                         1.1.
Answered inquiry                                                                     No.
News staff                                                                               1 director; 5 announcers.
Format Standard pop.                                                             65 percent; semi-classical 30 percent; classical 5 percent.
News services                                                                         AP.
NAB Code                                                                               Yes.
Call sign                                                                                  KSWO.
Type                                                                                        AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                                  Oklahoma Quality Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                                                         Yes.
Principal owner                                                                       R. H. Drewry, 60 percent.
Other owners                                                                          Jack E. Warkentin, 5.167 percent; Edith H. Scott, 15.5 percent; James Warkentin, 5.167                                                                                                        percent; Judith E. Warkentin, 5.167 percent.
Other media interests                                                              KSWO-TV, Lawton, Okla.; KRHD, Duncan, Okla.; KMID-TV, Midland, Tex.; KGWA, Enid, Okla.
Other business interests                                                         None.
General manager                                                                    Tom Reddell.
Number of employees                                                             15 -- 2 administrative, 2 sales, 2 engineering, 9 programming.
Frequency/Power                                                                    1380 kc, 1 kw.
Hours of operation                                                                  126.
Commercial rates                                                                    $6.60/1 minute spot.
Network affiliation                                                                    ABC.
Began operation                                                                      1941.
Proposed maximum number of                                               18 normal (20 during emergencies, political, drive time)
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                                       19.4.
Public affairs                                                                           1.5.
Other non-entertainment                                                         3.0.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                                       20.0.
Public affairs                                                                           2.0.
Other non-entertainment                                                         3.0.
Answered inquiry                                                                     No.
News staff                                                                               1 news director; 1 newsman/announcer; 2 news reporters.
Format                                                                                     Country, western 4 percent; standard 10 percent; talk 20 percent; religion 4 percent; pops 62                                                                                          percent.
News services                                                                         UPI, Oklahoma Western Union, weather/emergency wire.
NAB Code                                                                               Yes.
TV stations
Call sign                                                                                  KSWO-TV.
Type                                                                                        VHF.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                                  KSWO-TV, Inc.
Locally owned                                                                         Yes.
Principal owner                                                                       R. H. Drewry, 69 percent.
Other owners                                                                          Jack E. Warkentin, 5.167 percent; Edith H. Scott, 15.5 percent; James T. Warkentin, 5.167                                                                                         percent; Judith E. Warkentin, 5.167 percent.
Other media interests                                                              KSWO, Lawton, Okla.; KRHD, Duncan, Okla.; KMID-TV, Midland, Tex.; KGWA, Enid, Okla.
Other business interests                                                         None.
General manager                                                                    Tom Reddell.
Number of employees                                                             32 -- 4 administrative, 5 sales, 8 engineering, 15 programming.
Frequency/power                                                                    Channel 7; 316 kw visual power.
Hours of operation                                                                  107.
Commercial rates                                                                    $110/1 minute spot; $450/hour.
Network affiliation                                                                    ABC.
Began operation                                                                      1953.
Proposed maximum number of                                                16 normal (20 during emergencies, elections)
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                                       6.7.
Public affairs                                                                           3.3.
Other non-entertainment                                                         0.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                                       7.0.
Public affairs                                                                           2.3.
Other non-entertainment                                                         0.
Answered Inquiry                                                                     No.
TV network clearances:
Regular news and public affairs                                              Cleared 7 of 7.
Special news and documentaries                                           Cleared 27 of 27.
Special reports and bulletins                                                   Cleared 7 of 8.
TV programs sources:
Past sample week -- hours:
Local                                                                                       9.
Network                                                                                   75.
Recorded                                                                                22.
Proposed -- hours:
Local                                                                                       11 1/2.
Network                                                                                   76.
Recorded                                                                                19.
News staff                                                                               1 news director; 2 reporter; 2 announcers.
News services                                                                         UPI; Western Union Regional Weather Wire.
NAB Code                                                                               Yes.

 [*63]  McAlester

A community of some 20,000 people, McAlester is located in southeast Oklahoma in country of rough terrain, sometimes called the foot-hills of the Ozarks.  In the middle of what was the Choctaw Indian Nation, McAlester has a combination of textiles, coal mining, stockyards, rail and truck lines as its main industries.  The town also depends upon the nearby U.S. Naval Ammunition Depot for employment and the Oklahoma State Prison is located close-by.  Marine Engineering & Equipment Co., Oklahoma Scientific Co., and North American Aviation, Inc., are prominent firms.

McAlester is served by five local media.  Competing daily newspapers -- one morning (Democrat -- circulation 4,278) and one evening (News-Capital -- circulation 9,663) are unusual in this age of monopoly newspaper towns.  There are three radio stations -- two of which, KNED-AM-FM, are jointly owned.  The other radio station is KTMC.  While there are no apparent ownership links between the newspapers and the radio stations, a 21-percent owner (and president) of KNED-AM-FM is also listed as the corporate secretary of the Democrat.

McAlester also receives primary coverage from AM station KRMG,  [*64]  Tulsa; TV stations KTEN, Ada, Okla; and KTUL, Tulsa, Okla.  There is a CATV system available carrying KVOO, KOTV, and KTUL, Tulsa; KXII, Ardmore; KWTV, WKY, and KETA, Oklahoma City; KFSA, Fort Smith, Ark.; and KTEN, Ada.  There are no translators in McAlester.

KNED-AM-FM are owned by Francis and Gene Stipe.  Francis Stipe is the general manager of the stations which have a total of eight employees.  Mr. Stipe also has a retail gasoline business.  KNED-AM operates some 120 hours a week with a format of 50 percent country and western, 3 percent folk music, and 47 percent standard and pops.  For its composite week NKED reports that 11 percent news, 5 percent public affairs and 13 percent other except entertainment and sports were presented.  For the next 3 years 10 percent news, 5 percent public affairs, and 13 percent other is proposed.

For news KNED subscribes to UPI, the Indian Nation Network News, and the Oklahoma Weather Wire.  All staff are reported to take part in gathering news which is presented 17 times a day.  Other public service programming include county agent's agricultural reports, a city manager's "Report to the People," religious programming, "Household Hints" with Heloise, the "Washington Report," and the "Boys Club Report." On April 11, 1967, KNED presented a local program produced by students at L'Overture High School -- a discussion of the American Negro, his struggles for life, and his place in modern society.  KNED also presents three daily news reports from towns outside McAlester -- Wilburton, Hartshorne -- Haileyville, and Eufaula.

KNED reports that needs and interests of the public are determined by discussions with various leaders of the area and Pittsburg County.  These needs and interests which KNED's programming fulfills include a variety of musical programming, 17 newscasts per day, county agent programs, the city manager's report, and religious programs.

KNED-FM offers a format of 100 percent standard pops and proposes 10 percent news, 2 percent public affairs, and 3 percent other.  KNED-FM duplicates the AM about 2 hours per day Monday through Saturday and for one hour on Sunday.  Duplication provides KNED-FM with some news and other nonmusic programming from the AM.  The survey of community needs and interests, and the programs proposed to serve them, essentially repeat the information from the AM application except that smaller amounts of non-entertainment programming are proposed.

KTMC is owned primarily by Robert W. Baggett, who lives in McAlester and manages the station.  On the air about 120 hours a week the station presents 12 percent country and western, 65 percent standard and jazz, 18 percent pop, and 4 percent classical and semi-classical.

During its composite week the station broadcast 11.85 percent news, 0.09 percent public affairs and 3.55 percent other than entertainment and sports.  It proposes 12.83 percent news; 0.9 percent public affairs, and 4.39 percent other during the next years.
To determine the needs and interests of the community personal calls were made to roughly 20 organizations in McAlester or Pittsburg County.  The result was that the most significant interest of the public  [*65]  is to be informed about the possibility of tornadoes.  A 15-minute "McAlester Boys Club" program is broadcast on Saturday morning.

With only six employees there is no one assigned primarily to news.  All employees perform as a news staff and the station subscribes the AP.

As examples of its public service programming the station lists a 30-minute live broadcast from a local high school during Negro History Week, ground breaking ceremonies at a local aircraft industry plant, 3 1/2 hours of coverage of the "County Junior Fat Stock Show," the weekly "Boys Club Show," programs taped at the Boy Scout summer camp, and programs taped from the local representative to the National Girl Scout Roundup.

General

Population (1967 census estimated)          19,600.
Population (1960) (Pittsburg County)         17,419.
Nonwhite (1960) (Pittsburg County)           10.7 percent.
Homes (Pittsburg County)                          10,500.
TV Homes (Pittsburg County)                    9,400.
Local media                                                5.
Local AM stations                                       2.
Local FM stations                                       1.
Local TV stations                                        0.
Local newspapers                                      2.
Local media owners                                   4.
Overlapping ownership                              KNED, AM-FM.
National publications circulation (Pitts-      Time, 195; Newsweek, 148; U.S. News, 118; Life, 563; Look, 1,121; Sunday New York Times, 9; Harpers, 26.
burg County).

Translators                                                 None.
CATV's                                                       1 (carrying KVOO, KOTV, KTUL, Tulsa; KXII, Ardmore; KWTV, WKY, KETA, Oklahoma City; KTEN, Ada; KFSA,                                                                    Fort Smith, Ark.).
 Broadcast coverage

AM

Miles n1                          City                                Call                       Frequency                      Class                    Day             Night

                                      McAlester, Okla             KNED                   1150                              III-U DA-N                 X                 X
                                      do                                  KTMC                  1400                              IV-U                          X                 X
84                                  Tulsa, Okla                    KRMG                  740                                II-U DA-2           X
                                                                             FM
                                               
McAlester, Okla             KNED                   C
                                                                             TV
                                                                                                                                                                             City             A B
52                                  Ada, Okla                       KTEN                   10                                   ABC, CBS, NBC                      X
84                                  Tulsa, Okla                    KTUL                   8                                     ABC                                         X
 

n1 Approximate city center to city center.  [*66]

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KNED.
Type                                                                              AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        Little Dixie Radio, Inc.
Locally owned                                                                Yes.
Principal owner                                                              Gene Stipe, 79 percent.
Other owners                                                                 Francis Stipe, 21 percent.
Other media interests                                                    KNED-FM, McAlester.
Other business interests                                                Retail gasoline.
General manager                                                           Francis Stipe.
Number of employees                                                    8.
Frequency/power                                                           1150 kc, 1 kw-D, 500 w-N
Hours of operation                                                         120.
Commercial rates                                                           $5.31/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                                          Indian Nation News.
Began operation                                                            1950.
Proposed maximum number of                             18 (some exceptions).
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             11.0.
Public affairs                                                                  5.0.
Other non-entertainment                                               13.0.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                             10.0.
Public affairs                                                                  5.0.
Other non-entertainment                                               13.0.
Answered inquiry                                                           No.
News staff                                                                      Entire staff part-time.
Format                                                                           Country and western, 50 percent; standard pops, 47 percent; folk, 3 percent.
News services                                                               UPI.
NAB Code                                                                      Yes.
Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KNED-FM.
Type                                                                              FM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        Little Dixie Radio.
Locally owned                                                                Yes.
Principal owner                                                              Gene Stipe, 79 percent.
Other owners                                                                 Francis Stipe, 21 percent.
Other media interests                                                    KNED-AM, McAlester.
Other business interests                                                Retail gasoline.
General manager                                                           Francis D. Stipe.
Number of employees                                                    8.
Franquency/power                                                         101.3 Mc, 28 kw., U.
Hours of operation                                                         120.
Commercial rates                                                           $3.55/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                                          Indian Nation News.
Began operation                                                            1965.
Proposed maximum number of com-                             18 (some exceptions).
mercommercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             10.0.
Public affairs                                                                  0.5.
Other non-entertainment                                               1.3.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                             10.0.
Public affairs                                                                  2.0.
Other non-entertainment                                               3.0.
Answered inquiry
News staff                                                                      Entire staff part-time.
Format                                                                           Standard pops, 100 percent.
News services                                                               UPI.
NAB Code                                                                      Yes.

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KTMC.
Type                                                                              AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        McAlester Broadcasting, Inc.
Locally owned                                                                Yes.
Principal owner                                                              Robert W. Baggett, 73 percent.
Other owners                                                                 Ida R. Keehan, 1 percent; Sue Baggett, 8.75 percent.
Other media interests                                                    None.
Other business interests                                                None.
General manager                                                           Robert W. Baggett.
Number of employees                                                    6.
Frequency/power                                                           1400 kc, 250 w-U.
Hours of operation                                                         119.
Commercial rates                                                           $2.25/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                                          Keystone Broadcasting System.
Began operation                                                            1946.
Proposed maximum number of com-                             18.
mercommercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             11.85.
Public affairs                                                                  0.8
Other non-entertainment                                               3.55
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                              12.83
Public affairs                                                                  0.9
Other non-entertainment                                               4.39
Answered inquiry                                                           No.
News staff                                                                      Entire staff part-time.
Format                                                                           Country and western, 11.71 percent; standard and jazz, 65.27 percent; pop, 17.5 percent; classical a                                                                                  and semiclassical, 4.17 percent; religious, 0.83 percent.
News services                                                               AP.
NAB Code                                                                      Yes.

 [*67]  Muskogee

The county seat of Muskogee County, Muskogee is situated in the prairie plains of east-central Oklahoma and located about 50 miles southeast of Tulsa and about 130 miles from Oklahoma City.  The 1967 estimated population of the city was 39,917 with approximately 46,500 people in the urban area.  About 50 percent of the city's retail trade is based on agriculture.  Muskogee has 40 manufacturing and processing  [*68]  operations, 12 of which have more than 100 employees; the largest, Corning Glass Co., employs 375.  One-third of the city's population earns less than $2,500 a year; one-fifth earns over $7,000 a year.  Muskogee boasts the oldest college in Oklahoma, Bacone College, a 2-year liberal arts college originally a missionary school for Indians Of the college's 576 students, 176 are Indian and 20 are Negro.  By 1975, the college is scheduled to become a 4-year institution.  By 1970 Muskogee will have a new $2,500,000 port on the Arkansas River which will handle barge traffic between Muskogee and New Orleans.

The city is served by a local morning paper, Muskogee Daily Phoenix, having a daily circulation of 17,904 and the evening Times Democrat with a circulation of 2,235.  In addition, home delivery is available for the Tulsa World, Tulsa Tribune, Daily Oklahoman and Oklahoma City Times.  Muskogee receives three major network television stations and one educational station from Tulsa, and has three local radio stations, KBIX (AM), KMUS (AM), and KMMM-FM.

KBIX is licensed to the Oklahoma Press Publishing Co. which publishes both the local newspapers and is 80 percent owned by the Bixby family (Tams Bixby, Jr., 40 percent; Esther Bixby, 10 percent; Tams Bixby III, 30 percent).  In addition, Oklahoma Press owns 50 percent of the stock of Springfield Newspapers, Inc. (Missouri), which owns radio station KGBX and 50 percent of TV station KYTV in Springfield.  Other financial interests of the licensee include the Oklahoma Printing Co., the Phoenix Improvement Co., and the Western Paper Co., all of Muskogee.

KBIX is on the air about 128 hours a week, and has been broadcasting 18.87 percent news, 2.29 percent public affairs, and 3.93 percent other than entertainments and sports.  It proposes to allot 14.64 percent of its future programming to news, 2.25 percent public affairs, and 3.46 percent other.  The station broadcasts 5 minutes of local and state news on the hour and 5 minutes of network (Mutual) national and world news on the half hour.  The program format includes music divided into approximately 50 percent popular, 30 percent country and western, 10 percent rock and roll, 8 1/2 percent standard and 1 1/2 percent religious, and broadcasts of the local high school sports events in addition to the network programming.  Once each week, the station carries a half hour discussion program entitled "Forum of the Air" devoted to issues of local importance.  It appears from the answers submitted by the station in response to our letter to KBIX that the program has been devoted to local issues such as the Arkansas River bond proposal concerning the funding of a proposed river port, school annexation, the urban renewal proposal (all of which were voting issues) and increases in Muskogee General Hospital rates.  Farm news is carried six times a week.  KBIX subscribes to the UPI news service.  There is one part-time news man and seven other employees who also, according to the renewal application, work on gathering local news.  Because of its connection with the local newspapers, the station has ready access to any stories which the newspaper covers.  During the composite week, KBIX broadcast 350 public service announcements (including two in each Mutual network news program).  KBIX promised 5 percent of its  [*69]  programming to religion, agriculture and education but only 3.93 percent showed up in the composite week, according to the station because one of the churches canceled its weekly program and a weekly half-hour education program carried only during the school session did not show up in the composite week.

The station printed letters and questionnaires in the local papers and gave spot announcements on the air, inviting suggestions as to programming from listeners.  About a dozen prominent citizens were contacted personally and another 178 were sent personal letters in order to elicit suggestions as to programming.  In response to this survey, the station determined to increase the religious programming.
KMUS is owned by Horace C. Boren of Muskogee who is also the licensee and owner of KWON, Bartlesville, Okla., and has financial interests in Muzak, Muskogee General Service, Adlow Co., and Kenmore Apartments, all of Muskogee.  The station broadcasts a total of approximately 136 hours per week, of which 13.32 percent has been devoted to news, 0.18 percent to public affairs and 4.25 percent to other programming exclusive of entertainment and sports.  KMUS proposes to expand its public affairs broadcasts from 15 to 55 minutes per week with such programs as "Your City Speaks" featuring city officials, "We Believe" presented by the Junior Chamber of Commerce, "The Good Life" consisting of roundtable discussions on family life and religious life, "The Investigators" a weekly program by the U.S. Treasury Department on the dangers of the use of moonshine liquor, "Social Security program," and "Roughers Talk" (a high school news program).  The station explains that it has provided time for a day-to-day discussion of public issues by selecting participants encountered by news personnel doing remote broadcasts.  Licensee proposes to present 300 public service announcements a week as compared with 266 in the past.  KMUS subscribes to UPI news service and the Cardinal Baseball Network.  Ten percent of the news time is devoted to local news and 20 percent to regional news.  The basic format is described by the station as standard popular music for 61 percent of the time, rock and roll 22 percent, and country and western 12 percent.

KMUS demonstrates its survey of community needs and interests by noting that its personnel are in contact with major civic groups in the community.  Unsolicited letters are said to demonstrate that needs are being met.

KMMM-FM, a station licensed in July 1967 is owned by the Ann Broadcasting Co., six of whose seven stockholders live in Sherman, Tex. (The other one lives in Nowata, Okla., relatively far from Muskogee.) KMMM presented 6.5 percent news, 0.7 percent public affairs, and 21 percent other than entertainment and sports.  The station proposes to present 5.5 percent news, 3.0 percent public affairs, and 2.3 percent other.  UPI news service is carried.  Each of the station's four employees is charged with gathering news.  The station operates approximately 127 hours per week.  [*70]

General

Population (1967 census estimated)                                       40,929.
Population (1960)                                                                    38,059.
Nonwhite (1960) (Muskogee County)                                     22.2 percent.
Homes (Muskogee County)                                                    20,200.
TV Homes (Muskogee County)                                               18,300.
Local media                                                                             4.
Local AM stations                                                                    2.
Local FM stations                                                                    0.
Local TV stations                                                                    0.
Local newspapers                                                                   2.
Local media owners                                                                2.
Overlapping ownership                                                           KBIX (AM), Muskogee Phoenix and Muskogee Times Democrat.
National publications circulation                                              Time, 448; Newsweek, 386; U.S. News, 336; Life, 1213; Look, 2000; Sunday New York Times, (Muskogee County)                                                               13; Harpers, 71.
Translators                                                                              None.
CATV's                                                                                    None.

Broadcast coverage

AM

Miles n1                                   City                                Call                       Frequency                      Class                    Day             Night
                                                Muskogee, Okla            KMUS                  1380                               III-U DA-N             X                 X
                                                do                                  KBIX                     1490                               IV-U                      X                 X
41                                            Tulsa, Okla                    KRMG                  740                                 II-U DA-2              x
                                                do                                  KVOO                   1170                               I-B DA-N               X
15                                            Wagoner, Okla              KWLG                  1530                               II-D                       X
                                                                                      FM
                                                Muskogee, Okla            KMMM                                                        C
                                                                                      TV
                                                                                                                                                                                      City             A B
41                                            Tulsa, Okla                    KOED                   11 ETV                                                       X
                                                do                                  KOTV                   9                                     CBS                     X
                                                do                                  KTUL                   8                                     ABC                      X
                                                do                                  KVOO                   2                                     NBC                     X
63                                            Fort Smith, Ark               KFSA                    5                                     ABC, CBS, NBC  X
 

n1 Approximate city center to city center.

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KMUS.
Type                                                                              AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        Horace C. Boren.
Locally owned                                                                Yes.
Principal owner                                                              Horace C. Boren.
Other owners                                                                 None.
Other media interests                                                    KWON, Bartlesville, Okla.
Other business interests                                                Muzak, Muskogee General Service; Adlow Co.; Kenmore Apartments.
Station manager                                                            James E. Keitel.
Number of employees                                                    9.
Frequency/power                                                           1380 kc, 1 kw-D, 500 w-N.
Hours of operation                                                         136.
Commercial rates                                                           $4/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                                          Cardinal Baseball, Oklahoma UniVersity Football.
Began operation                                                            1948.
Proposed maximum number of                             18.
commercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             13.32.
Public affairs                                                                  0.18.
Other non-entertainment                                               4.25.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                             13.2.
Public affairs                                                                  0.67.
Other non-entertainment                                               3.6.
Answered inquiry                                                           No.
News staff                                                                      Entire staff covers news part-time.
Format                                                                           Standard and pops, 61 percent; rock and roll, 22 percent; country and western, 12 percent.
News services                                                               UPI.
NAB Code                                                                      No.

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KBIX.
Type                                                                              AM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        Oklahoma Press Publishing Co.
Locally owned                                                                Yes.
Principal owner                                                              Oklahoma Press Publishing Co.
Other owners                                                                 None.
Other media interests                                                    Muskogee Phoenix; Muskogee Times-Democrat; Springfield Newspapers, Inc.; Springfield, Mo.;                                                                                           KGBX and KYTV, Springfield, Mo.
Other business interests                                                Oklahoma Printing Co., Phoenix Improvement Co., Western Paper Co.
Station manager                                                            Gayle Lee.
Number of Employees                                                   12.
Frequency/power                                                           1490 kc, 250w U.
Hours of operation                                                         128.
Commercial rates                                                           $6/1 minute.
Network affiliation                                                          Mutual.
Began operation                                                            1936.
Proposed maximum number of com-                             18.
Mercommercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             18.87.
Public affairs                                                                  2.29.
Other non-entertainment                                               3.93.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                             14.64
Public affairs                                                                  2.25.
Other non-entertainment                                               3.46.
Answered inquiry                                                           Yes.
News staff                                                                      Entire staff covers news part-time.
Format                                                                           50 percent pop; 31 percent country and western; 9 percent rock and roll; 8 percent standards; 1 1/2                                                                               percent religious.
News services                                                               UPI.
NAB Code                                                                      No, but follows its standards.

Radio stations
Call sign                                                                         KMMM.
Type                                                                              FM.
Ownership:
Licensee                                                                        Ann Broadcasting Co.
Locally owned                                                                No.
Principal owner                                                              7 owners equally divided -- 14.3 percent each -- William R. Avard, Harry M. Shyttes, William J. Nosek,                                                                                   Stephen L. Avard, David T. Wells, Orville C. Chellenberger, Bill G. Brown.
Other media interests                                                    None.
Other business interests                                                None.
General manager                                                           Pat Fulton.
Number of employees                                                    5.
Frequency/power                                                           106.9 mc, 45.15 kw, U.
Hours of operation                                                         129.
Commercial rates                                                           Not available.
Network affiliation                                                          None.
Began operation                                                            1967.
Proposed maximum number of com-                             12.
mercommercial minutes/hour.
Program types:
Past sample week (percent):
News                                                                             13.0.
Public affairs                                                                  7.0.
Other non-entertainment                                               3.0.
Proposed for next 3 years (percent):
News                                                                             5.5.
Public affairs                                                                  3.0.
Other non-entertainment                                               2.3.
Answered inquiry                                                           No.
News staff                                                                      4 part-time.
Format                                                                           Country and western, 15 percent; standard pops, 39 percent; rock, 56 percent.
News services                                                               UPI.
NAB Code                                                                      Yes.

 [*72]  Oklahoma City

Born in the Great Land Rush of 1889 as a community of 10,000, Oklahoma City is a city of over a half-million people -- the largest city in the State of Oklahoma and the 37th largest in the Nation.  Located in the center of the State, agriculture, livestock, and oil were early reasons for its growth and remain important.  Newly important industries include aviation and electronics.

Oklahoma City is served by five major airlines through the Will Rogers World Airport.  Oil wells stand on the State capitol grounds.  The city is especially proud of its zoo and the National Cowboy Hall of Fame and Western Heritage Center.

Oklahoma City has a variety of local media to serve it.  There are three local newspapers, six TV stations, nine AM stations (including two from nearby Norman, which is part of the greater Oklahoma City area) and seven FM stations.  In addition the city receives coverage from TV station KTEN, Ada; AM stations KELR, El Reno, KGFF, Shawnee, and KRMG, Tulsa; and FM stations KNBQ, Bethany,  [*73]  KCSC and KWHP, Edmond and KXLS, Midwest City.  Many of these stations are close enough to the city to be considered city stations.
In terms of mass media, there are essentially two classes of purveyors of information and entertainment for the people of Oklahoma City, and, for that matter, for the entire State of Oklahoma.  In the first class fall those which are owned and controlled by the Gaylord family.  In the second class fall all the rest.

It is not unusual, in many parts of the Nation, for a small number of owners to dominate the structure of local and regional media.  Theirs tower above the holdings of smaller owners -- in terms of variety, numbers, popularity, profitability, and, as a consequence of the other factors, in terms of power.  The Gaylord interests in Oklahoma typify this pattern of media concentration.  However, their preeminence goes beyond the usual pattern -- for it is unchallenged by any other local or regional media interests of remotely comparable strength.

At the apex of the Gaylord pyramid of media are Oklahoma City's two principal newspapers, the Daily Oklahoman (morning) and the Oklahoma City Times (afternoon).  The Oklahoman, with 268,218 Sunday circulation and 170,709 on weekdays, circulates widely around the State outside of Oklahoma City and is the State's principal local source of information and opinion about local and regional affairs.  Its circulation is double its competitor for the weekday morning market, the upstart Oklahoma Journal, which reaches 72,318 readers.

The two Gaylord newspapers are published by the Oklahoma Publishing Co., which is wholly controlled by the Gaylord family.  Mr. E. K. Gaylord, editor and publisher of both dailies, was recipient of the Oklahoma City Press Club's first Outstanding Leader Award, given in 1967.

OPUBCO, as the company abbreviates its name, handles its broadcast interests through a subsidiary, WKY Television System, Inc. WKY Television operates WKY-AM, a 5-kw standard broadcast station, nd WKY-TV, Oklahoma City's NBC affiliate, which operates on channel 4.  The broadcast subsidiary also holds television licenses in Fort Worth-Dallas, Houston, Milwaukee, and Tampa.  OPUBCO also publishes Rx Golf and Travel, a golf and travel magazine, and the Farmer-Stockman (an agricultural monthly with separate editions for Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas) which reaches nearly a half-million farmers in this tristate region.

Information about national and international affairs reaches Oklahoma City through the Gaylord Newspapers, their new competitor the Journal, 14 wire-service and network-fed radio stations, three television networks (two of which, ABC [KOCO-TV, channel 5] and CBS [KSWO-TV, channel] are carried by non-Gaylord stations), and various national print media.  Time has 7,569 subscribers in Oklahoma County, Newsweek, 4,120, and U.S. News & World Report, 3,826.  Look and Life boast 20,752 and 15,395 subscribers respectively; The New York Times Sunday edition reaches 283 Oklahoma City families (though not until Tuesday or Wednesday); undoubtedly the bulk of the 670 statewide copies of the New Repulic go to Oklahoma City; and Harper's magazine reaches 1,478 Oklahoma City households.

The most important television outlet in Oklahoma City is WKY-TV,  [*74]  channel 4.  It is the local NBC affiliate, licensed to WKY Television System, Inc., and a wholly owned subsidiary of OPUBCO, the corporate vehicle of the publishing interest of the Gaylord family.
In its renewal application, WKY's management states that its "continuing dialogue with its area" has shown the area to have four para-mount needs which television can serve.  The needs are: the need to be informed, the need for economic growth, the need for pride and excellence, and the need to be entertained.  In its programming, the station attempts to meet those needs.

Looking at the bare statistics of the station's program format, the priorities claimed by WKY-TV in its application do not appear plainly reflected.  "Information," which the licensee states to be the first of the four needs of his community, is only directly reflected as taking up about 15 percent of its past programming, a figure which will be reduced to about 13 percent for the next 3 years; news and public affairs programs constituted 12.2 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively of the weekly WKY-TV menu, percentages which the station proposes to reduce to 11.2 percent and 2.2 percent for the next license period.

"Economic Growth," an objective which WKY-TV primarily serves by selling time to advertisers, thereby occupies a portion of the broadcast day which is equal to or greater than the information portion (the precise percentage cannot be determined from responses to the official renewal forms, but a significant proportion of the time its viewers will be exposed to 16 minutes of commercials every hour).  In addition to its advertising, the station promoted the community's number two need, economic growth, with a 30-minute local program broadcast in June and in August 1967.  It was prepared in cooperation with Oklahoma County libraries and the Better Business Bureau of Oklahoma City, entitled "Money and You," and was designed to enable the viewer to make wiser use of his money (as distinguished from normal advertising which is, presumably, only designed to make the viewer make more use of his money).
The third of WKY-TV's community needs is "Pride," which the station services with a number of locally produced programs, including "Junior Achievement," "Miss Teenage Oklahoma City," "Youth Variety '68," "High School Football Preview," and "Oklahoma University Football Monday Playback."

The fourth among WKY-TV's list of high-priority community needs is "Entertainment." In its renewal application, the station's management notes that, "With increasing leisure time * * * today's citizen ever increasingly needs the surcease from care that entertainment brings." In recognition, the station devotes approximately 65 percent of its broadcast time to entertainment, a surprisingly high percentage in view of the relatively low priority given this particular need by the licensee itself.

WKY-TV prides itself on a number of self-originated special programs broadcast during the past year, including "Miss America in Vietnam," "Little Dead Schoolhouse," a prize-winning documentary on the problem of school consolidation in Oklahoma, and "Preserved With Pride," a television essay on conservation.  WKY-TV also telecast  [*75]  various local public events, among which were the hearings held by the Oklahoma City Council concerning a proposed open housing ordinance.  This NBC affiliate does not list among its own definition of its community's basic needs the need for communication between the races which NBC news has termed "the greatest single need in America today." Nevertheless, WKY-TV helped to serve this need by bringing open housing hearings into the living rooms of all the citizens of Oklahoma City.

The ABC affiliate in Oklahoma City is KOCO-TV, channel 5.  It is licensed to the Cimarron Television Corp., a consortium of various individuals active in diverse sectors of the region's economy.  Represented among the directors, officers, and principal stockholders of Cimarron are important interests in real estate, magazine distribution, banking, aviation, ranching, restaurants, insurance, and broadcasting.  (Two KOCO-TV officials own large blocks of stock in the corporation which owns KOFM of Oklahoma City; others participate in the ownership and management of KMBT (TV) of Beaumont, Tex.) All phases of the oil and gas industries are represented on the board of this television station.  Among Cimarron's directors are Robert S. Kerr, Jr., son of the late Senator, and Mr. D. A. McGee, whose family was associated with the Kerr family in various business ventures.

The station controlled by this group of industrialists serves the citizens of Oklahoma City primarily by delivering ABC network programs into their living rooms.  Local originated programs were broadcast mainly on Sundays and during the afternoon, the main exception to this principle being the half-four news, weather, and sports report broadcast at 10 each weeknight.

KOCO-TV's license renewal application did not attempt to particularize the management's conception of the community priorities which most require attention from its cameras.  However, its format reflected an implicit judgment that entertainment should be accorded a slightly larger block of broadcast time than provided by WKY.  KOCO-TV carries 5.6 percent news, 1.8 percent public affairs, and 6.9 percent other non-entertainment programs.  The station cleared many ABC public affairs specials produced during the period December 1967 to April 1968, but did not carry ABC's regular Sunday programs, "ABC Scope" and "Issues and Answers." On Sundays, the station broadcasts a large number of unsponsored religious programs.  It also broadcast a weekly discussion forum, "Open Mind," from 9 to 9:15 a.m. each Sunday, as well as current events commentary by Dan Smoot from 12:45 to 1 p.m. On individual occasions during the past year, KOCO-TV has carried special public affairs documentaries, including programs about the dangers of venereal disease, the importance of an "NAACP Freedom Center" designed to keep teenagers off the street during the summer, the nature and function of the local antipoverty program, and the public relations problems of the police, among other subjects.  The station's management adheres to a commercial policy limiting maximum amount of time devoted to advertisements to 16 minutes per hour, with occasional special exceptions not exceeding 20 minutes per hour.

 [*76]  KOCO-TV explained its analysis of the problems of Oklahoma City in its response to our letter.  The station emphasized that, while almost 10 percent of the Oklahoma City standard metropolitan statistical area in 1960 is nonwhite, the overwhelming majority of the nonwhite population is not Negro, but Indian.  The response noted a number of attempts to improve the community's understanding of the problems of the Indian and his contribution to the building of the American West.  Among these was a 30-minute discussion program, in which spokesmen for local Indians explained ways in which an ABC program on General Custer portrayed his race unfavorably.  KOCO-TV has also played a significant role, its response explained, in disseminating information about the Kerner Commission report.  Senator Fred Harris of Oklahoma, a prominent member of the Commission, is featured in a monthly report in which he is interviewed by local newsmen.  Two editions of this program were primarily devoted to the Commission report.  The public service performed by KOCO-TV in producing this program is magnified by its practice of distributing it, by video tape, to television stations in Tulsa, Ada, and Lawton.

KWTV is Oklahoma City's CBS outlet.  It is owned by Griffin-Leake TV, Inc. Griffin-Leake also owns VHF television stations in Little Rock (KATV, channel 7) and Tulsa (KTUL-TV, channel 8), the nearest significant urban centers to Oklahoma City.  The Griffin and Leake families, which control Griffin-Leake TV, also control the Griffin Grocery Co., the Denison Peanut Co., and other business interests spread around the Plains States.

In its renewal application, KWTV states that its effort to ascertain the needs and interests of the community have primarily focused on keeping informed about community affairs, through the activities of the station's news staff, and through personal involvement by executives in community organizations and projects.  The application lists numerous organizations of which KWTV executives are members, including Governor's committees on juvenile delinquency and the status of women, the Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce, various trade associations related to the meat production industry, churches and social fraternities.

Mr. Charles Palmer of the KWTV news staff was the driving force behind the organization of the Grand National Quail Club, which sponsors the Grand National Quail Hunt.  As the application relates, "The first hunt was held in Oklahoma in 1967," and Mr. Palmer was allowed by the station to take off a portion of company time to permit him to complete this substantial personal effort to attract attention to quail hunting and to the State of Oklahoma.

KWTV has a substantial farm department, which keeps in close and continuing contact with numerous farm-related organizations, such as Oklahoma 4-H Clubs, Oklahoma Cowbelles, Inc., the Oklahoma Cattlemen's Association, the Oklahoma Wheat Grower's Association, and so forth.

KWTV devotes 8.5 percent of its broadcast week to news and 0.8 percent to public affairs programming.  However, these statistics, the station maintains, somewhat understate the true picture of public  [*77]  affairs programming by the station, since a local live variety show carried Monday through Friday from 1 to 1:30 p.m. is classified as "entertainment," despite the fact that segments of the program are devoted to public affairs, including interviews with leaders and officials in the station's coverage area.

Among the programs carried by KWTV which it considers as samples of programs designed to meet public needs and which were not sponsored are Sunday morning world affairs by Dr. Waldo Stephens, who has traveled extensively to various parts of the world on behalf of the U.S. Government and private organizations, and whose academic career has been, in the applicant's terms, "balanced with a career in the business world dealing with the oil industry." KWTV also produced and ran twice, once in prime time, a program pairing Dr. Stephens and Lt. Gen. Lewis M. Walt, USMC, discussing the recent war in Vietnam.  Other examples of public affairs programs included "What's News," current events quiz show for college students shown on most weekends; "Ace in the Hole," a program dealing with the U.S. Air Defense Command at Colorado Springs, Colo. -- Norad Center; "The Answer Is Clear," an air pollution documentary; "Crossover Thunderbirds," dealing with a U.S. Air Force goodwill tour of South America; "Christmas Eve in Vietnam," which portrayed the story of Christmas for soldiers in Vietnam; "AJET," a documentary dealing with the supply mission of Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City; and "The Challenge of Change," a wildlife documentary.

The great bulk of KWTV's programming is produced by CBS in New York.  The local station takes over daily at 7:30 a.m., 12 noon, and 6 and 10 p.m. to broadcast 30 minutes of local news, weather, and sports, as well as for farm reports and morning devotions.  Intermittent local public affairs and other broadcasts also preempt network programming from time to time.

In addition to the fare offered by its three network affiliates, Oklahoma City viewers have the option of turning to one of their two educational television stations.  The most significant of these, KETA-TV, operates on VHF channel 13 and is affiliated with National Educational Television, the network which transports an outstanding assortment of quality programs to educational stations throughout the country.  KETA-TV is owned and operated by the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, a State governmental entity established to operate this public broadcasting service for citizens of the State.
KETA's programming is divided into two distinct segments.  From 7:30 in the morning till 2:40 p.m. on weekdays, KETA jointly programs with KOED-TV, Tulsa's ETV outlet, pure instructional material in various primary and secondary school level subjects used by local schools.  From 5 p.m. until 10 p.m., KETA offers the general population of Oklahoma City an alternative to commercial programming, the bulk of which is NET-supplied features like "NET Journal" and "NET Playhouse."

KOKH-TV stands in a weaker position than KETA, as it operates on a UHF channel (25), began operation considerably later than KETA, and because it has no affiliation with NET.  It produces approximately 30 hours of programs per week.  Half of these are instructional  [*78]  and half are classified in the renewal application as "other," being neither "general educational," "performing arts," "public affairs," or "light entertainment." The log of the week's programs filed by KOKH fails to clear up the meaning of "other," and the log shows that only instructional programs were broadcast during the week selected for reporting purposes by the Commission.  In answer to our letters, KOKH noted several examples of programs aimed at improving race relations.

Oklahoma City's populace has, in addition to its four commercial and two educational television signals, 14 locally originated radio signals.  Across the Nation in recent years, the increasing number of radio stations has produced a remarkable increase in the variety of program formats offered.  Unlike television stations, which program for a wide cross-section of the whole population, radio stations have tended to program for more selected audience segments by using relatively distinct formats (rock and roll, popular, classical, talk, all-news, country and western, and so forth).

In Oklahoma City, program variety does not match the diversity of available signals.  There is as yet no all-news or all-talk station.  Nor does any of the city's stations offer a classical music format.  One station, KBYE, programs for the city's Negro community.  The rest of the radio stations program various kinds of popular music.

One station, KOMA-AM, whose 50 kw signal covers much of Oklahoma during the day and much of the nation at night, carries a contemporary format, which means current hits.  KTOK carries a similar contemporary-standard selection, KFNB-FM, KJEM (AM and FM), WKY, and WNAD carry standard-pop formats which are designed to appeal to a somewhat older brand of music lover than the top 40 contemporary stations.  KNOR, KOFM, KNBQ-FM, KOCY (AM and FM) play records within the standard-conservative class.  KLPR plays country and western music.

Most of the stations offer virtually identical amounts of news and public affairs programming.  The typical case consists of 9 to 14 percent news and 0.5 to 2 percent public affairs.  The larger and wealthier stations have their own news departments, with one to five individuals employed therein and one or more mobile units with two-way communications equipment.  These include KOMA, KTOK, KJEM, WKY, WNAD, KNOR, KNBQ-FM, KOCY, KBYE, and KLPR.  For national and international news, the stations rely almost entirely on the available wire services.  Regional news is often reported by "stringers" in different parts of the State and contiguous areas.  WNAD (which is licensed to nearby Norman, Okla.) is affiliated with the CBS radio network and broadcasts CBS news on the hour as well as other news and public affairs features produced by the network.  Its percentage of news (17 percent) and public affairs (4 percent) stand out from the others.  KOCY is an NBC outlet and carries NBC's hourly newscasts and other public affairs features.  KXLS-FM is affiliated  [*79]  with ABC, but has carried in the past only 0.5 percent news and no public affairs programming; for the next 3 years, however, KXLS proposes to program 5 percent news and 0.8 percent public affairs.

A surprisingly substantial minority of the Oklahoma City stations propose less than 5 percent news or 1 percent public affairs.  These include: KTOK (12.7 percent news, 0.6 percent public affairs); KBYE (1 percent news, 11 percent public affairs); KLPR (14.4 percent news, 0.51 percent public affairs); KXLS-FM (5 percent news, 0.8 percent public affairs); KNBQ-FM (1.7 percent news, 0.43 percent public affairs); KOCY-FM (9.5 percent news, 0.7 percent public affairs); and KIOO-FM (1.2 percent news, 3 percent public affairs).

The conclusion cannot be escaped that radio in Oklahoma City is not a significant forum for community discussion and talent.  Certainly, much less time is devoted to such matters by the stations than could be made available -- almost no time, other than newscasts, during prime listening hours.  Among those examples of public affairs discussion programming which the licensees stressed in submitting their applications for renewal were: WKY's "Straight Talk," a telephone forum with special guests broadcast between 10 a.m. and 12 noon on Sundays; KTOK's "Headliners," interviews with civic and political leaders carried Sundays from 12:05 p.m. to 12:30 p.m.; KOMA's "Sunday Forum," which features panel and telephone discussions of controversial and otherwise important public questions from 9 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on Sundays; KLPR's wide variety of religious programs; KJEM's "Doyle Legislative Report," a 1-minute-per-day report on developments in the Oklahoma State Legislature; and KFNB's "Urban Renewal Report," carried from 7 to 7:05 a.m. on Sundays.

Of the stations whose news and public affairs programming fall below 5 percent and 1 percent levels all but two are FM's.  Of the AM's only one appears defective in the news department.  This is KBYE, whose regular rhythm and blues format is aimed at Oklahoma City's Negro population.  The preponderance of its public affairs programs pay their way on the air.  "Bible Institute of the Air," carried 7 days a week from 8 to 8:30 a.m., is bought and paid for by an organization by the same name, and is produced and directed by Dr. Charles Burpo.  "Life Line," the personal instrument of H. L. Hunt, is bought and paid for by HLH Products, Inc., and goes out to the black citizens of Oklahoma City 6 days a week from 12 to 12:15 p.m. "Christian Crusade," paid for by an organization of the same name, is produced and directed by the Reverend Dr. Billy James Hargis, and is carried 7 days a week from 7:15 to 7:30 a.m. It is especially disquieting that the licensee of KBYE, Great Empire Broadcasting, Inc., has chosen to shortchange its audience with respect to news and public affairs programming.  For Negro radio has a special obligation and a special opportunity to inform the ghetto and to promote efforts by the black community to solve its problems.  One cannot discharge that obligation by interrupting soul music only for occasional summary newscasts and log as most of one's public  [*80]  service time rightwing editorialists willing to purchase the opportunity to spread their views.

Although the formats of Oklahoma City's radio stations look substantially similar, the popularity, and hence the profitability and power, of the stations differ widely.  The Gaylord family's WKY towers above the rest of the city's radio licensees in these respects.  It is far out in front of its nearest rivals, KOMA and KTOK.  It does not, however, use its power to a noticeably superior extent, or to program unusual amounts of news and public affairs shows; its proposed 10.13 percent news and 1.14 percent public affairs is approximately average for AM stations in the area.  This is a particularly arresting statistic, in view of the economies in news gathering which could accrue to the owners of KWY, by virtue of their ownership of WKY-TV, the Daily Oklahoman, the Oklahoma City Times, the Farmer-Stockman, Rx Golf & Travel magazines, as well as television stations in Fort Worth-Dallas, Houston, Milwaukee, and Tampa.

Other than the Gaylord holdings, the concentration of control over