A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for Electoral Districting

What is a SDSS?

"Compactness" vs. "Equality"

Inferior and Non-Inferior Solutions


Maximum compactness with spatially uniform distribution of voters.

Note: There is no trade-off between equality and compactness.


Compactness is sacrificed to achieve equity with a spatially non-uniform distribution of voters (Rushton,1972).

Note: Darker areas have higher densities of population, therefore the constituency areas are smaller. Lower density areas have larger constituency areas, but less regular shapes and more sinuous boundaries.

Copyright © 2001 by Joel D. Barkan, Paul Densham and Gerard Rushton