Barry C. Burden, Gregory A. Caldeira, and Tim Groseclose
Measuring the Ideologies of U.S. Senators: The Song Remains the Same
Legislative Studies Quarterly, XXV:237-58

This research note discusses and compares nine measures of senator ideology. It is motivated by the newest measure of legislator ideology offered by Hill, Hanna, and Shafqat (1997), which seeks to improve on existing measures, particularly those based on roll-call votes. We gather and compare nine different ideological measures from a wide variety of sources. After evaluating them theoretically and empirically, we conclude that existing indicators operationalize ideology as least as well as the newer alternatives.

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