The Co-Decision Procedure in the European Union
Legislative Studies Quarterly XXII:97-119

This paper presents a spatial model of the EU's co-decision procedure, introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht. The theory characterizes the set of policies that can be adopted and the equilibrium EU policy as a function of the ideal policies of the member countries, the Commission, and the Parliament, and the location of the status quo. The paper examines whether the Parliament has become a legislator of equal stature to the Council, and discusses the Commission's power and the extent of indecision under the co-decision procedure. A comparison with the EU's other principal legislative procedures yields comparative statements about EU policy and the institutions' powers.