DAVID B. HOLIAN, TIMOTHY B. KREBS, AND MICHAEL H. WALSH
Constituency Opinion, Ross Perot, and Roll-Call Behavior in the U.S. House:
The Case of NAFTA
Legislative Studies Quarterly XXII:369-92

This paper examines the extent to which electoral support for Ross Perot influenced House members' votes on the North American Free Trade Agreement. Using Perot's share of the congressional district vote and members' electoral safety as key predictor variables, we test a logit model, holding constant district demographic characteristics, members' party and ideology, region, and labor and business PAC contributions. The results of the analysis indicate that the magnitude of the Perot vote exerted a significant effect on the NAFTA vote outcome, specifically for marginal House Republicans. Thus, we provide evidence that under certain conditions members respond to Independent political movements and Independent voters in their districts when deciding on legislation.