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April 2006

August 2005

 

Annotated Bibliography

Linked where possible

Witherspoon, E. et al. (December 2002). Raising Achievement: Closing the Education Gap. Des Moines, IA: Urban Education Network.

This report provides recommendations of the Closing the Achievement Gap Study Committee and District timetables. Data on the achievement gap are presented and background materials describing strategies for raising achievement levels of poor and minority students are included.

http://www.uen-ia.org/raisingachivement.pdf

Austin, J., Johnson, K., & Gregoriou, M. (October 2000). Juveniles in adult prisons and jails: a national assessment. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance.

 

 

This report provides the most up-to-date data on the growing number of youth in adult jails and prisons, as of 1998. Among the major findings, a higher proportion of youth was African-African (55%) in comparison with the adult offender population (48%). The proportion of the youthful and adult population with a Hispanic background was 14 % and 15 %, respectively. Approximately 26 % of the youthful offenders were White, compared with 35 % of the adult population. These data suggest the overrepresentation of youth of color among youth offenders in adult facilities and that youth of color are being unfairly targeted for incarceration in adult prisons.
Available online : http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/bja/182503-1.pdf


Bilchik, S. (1999). Minorities in the juvenile justice system. Juvenile justice: A century of change. In 1999 National Report Series Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

This focused report highlights the most critical findings from the Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report on the overrepresentation of youth of color in the juvenile justice system. As the latest statistics show, disproportionate minority representation is clearly evident at each stage of the juvenile justice system and becomes more apparent as youth go deeper into the system. In 1997, youth of color made up about one third of the juvenile population nationwide but accounted for almost two-thirds of the population in secure juvenile facilities. The Bulletin notes that there is substantial evidence of widespread disparity in juvenile case processing of minority and non-minority youth and that racial-ethnic differences can occur at all stages of the process. While the disproportionality has been attributed to differences in behavior, such an explanation fails to support the large discrepancy in numbers.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/179007.pdf


Bishop, D., & Frazier, C. (1988). The influence of race in juvenile justice processing. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25: 242-263.

 

 

This three-year study of youth in Florida's juvenile justice system revealed that race was found to have both a direct and indirect effect on juvenile justice processing. The effects of race, age, gender, offense seriousness, prior record, and prior dispositions were examined with respect to intake screening decisions, detention status, referral to court, adjudication, and disposition. Legal factors (e.g., seriousness of offense and priors) were most significant, but the effects of race were compounded as juveniles penetrated deeper into the juvenile justice system.


Devine, P., Coolbaugh, K., & Jenkins, S. (December 1998). Disproportionate minority confinement: Lessons learned from five states. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

IIn examining the experiences of the five states participating in the DMC initiative (Arizona, Florida, Iowa, North Carolina, and Oregon), the study found DMC outcomes varied by state and community. However, the most important effect was a greater understanding within the pilot states of the complexity and pervasiveness of DMC and the development of model programs to address its causes.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/94612.pdf


Hamparian, D., & Leiber, M. (1997). Disproportionate confinement of minority juveniles in secure facilities: 1996 national report. Champaign, IL: Community Research Associates, Inc.

 

 

This report reveals that in the majority of States overrepresentation increases from the point of arrest through other points in the system to the final point of secure corrections. Among minority groups, overrepresentation of African-American youth are greater in most States, particularly at arrest and in confinement, than they are for any other minority group. In addition to the statewide DMC data, the report highlights a variety of strategies and approaches, such as cultural diversity training, community-based alternatives to secure detention and corrections, and policies and procedural revisions, that States are using to respond to DMC. Recommendations for the States emphasize outcome-evaluations of all DMC activities for its effectiveness in actually reducing the overrepresentation of youth of color in the juvenile justice system.

Harms, P. (January 2002). Detention in Delinquency Cases, 1989-1998. Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

Provides statistical information about the use of detention in delinquency caseloads handled by juvenile courts between 1989 and 1998. Specifically, this OJJDP Fact Sheet examines national trends in the number of delinquency cases involving detention, the detention population (both in terms of race and age), and the use of detention by juvenile courts. Detention caseloads increased 25 percent between 1989 and 1998, and the most dramatic change in the detention population was the influx of female juveniles charged with person offenses. The Fact Sheet is based on the forthcoming Report Juvenile Court Statistics 1998 and includes two figures and a table.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200201.pdf


Hsia, H.M., & Hamparian, D. (September 1998). Disproportionate minority confinement: 1997 Update. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

In the report's overview of the DMC initiative, 39 states have completed the identification and assessment phases and are implementing the intervention phase of DMC. Pennsylvania is highlighted for its model approach to addressing DMC that is systematic, data-driven, and targeted for raising public awareness, mobilizing support and resources, and implementing prevention and intervention programs.
Available online from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/170606.pdf

Juszkiewicz, Jolanta. (2000). Youth crime/adult time: Is justice served? Washington, DC: Building Blocks for Youth .

 

 

This report by the Pretrial Services Resource Center showed that 82% of the youth charged in adult court in 18 of the largest jurisdictions in the country were youth of color. Nearly two-thirds of all youth who were detained before trial were held in adult jails, and one-third of those were held in the general population with adult inmates. African-American (43%) and Latino (37%) youth were more likely than White youth (26%) to receive a sentence of incarceration.
Available online: http://www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/ycat


Krisberg, B., Schwartz, I., Fishman, G., Eisikovits, Z., Guttman, E. & Joe, K. (1987). The incarceration of minority youth. Crime & Delinquency, 33: 173-205.

 

 

A review of national data on incarcerated minority youth shows increasing numbers of minority youth in secure facilities, according to this article. Minority youth are incarcerated in public juvenile correctional facilities at rates three to four times that of whites. An examination of FBI data and self-report data indicates that minority youth are somewhat more likely than white youngsters to be involved in serious crime, but not to the extent sufficient to explain the differential incarceration rates. The article suggests the need for further research and the need for public officials to begin testing new strategies to reduce the trend of more minority youth growing up behind bars.


Males, M. & Macallair, D. (January 2000). The color of justice: An analysis of juvenile adult court transfers in California. Washington, DC: Building Blocks for Youth.

 

 

From the Justice Policy Institute, this study is the first analysis of racial and ethnic disparity in the transfer of youth to adult court and sentencing to California Youth Authority facilities. The study reveals that youth of color are 8.3 times more likely than white youth to be sentenced by an adult court to imprisonment in a California Youth Authority facility.
Available online: http://www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/colorofjustice/


Mauer, M. (1999). Race to Incarcerate. New York: New Press.

 

 

This race and class-based analysis of the trends in American criminal justice policy shows how the war on drugs exercised rigid control over drug treatment and economic development. Marc Mauer, Assistant Director of The Sentencing Project, tells the chilling story behind the unprecedented explosion of African American populations in U.S. prisons during the last twenty-five years. He explores the intersection of race and class that underpins current politics and crime policy. Although primarily an examination of the adult criminal justice system, the author also discusses juvenile arrest and incarceration rates.


Poe-Yamagata, E. & Jones, M. (January 2000). And Justice for Some. Washington, DC: Building Blocks for Youth.

 

 

A nationwide study prepared by National Council on Crime and Delinquency found that African-American and Hispanic youths are treated more harshly than their White peers charged with comparable crimes at every step of the juvenile justice system. African-American youth with no prior admissions were six times more likely to be incarcerated than White youth for similar offenses. These results give a comprehensive overview of the disparate treatment of youth of color in the justice system, based on the most complete data on juvenile justice processing.
Available online: http://www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/justiceforsome

Nussel, P.A. (2001). Youth for justice. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

Youth for Justice uses the power of active learning to teach youth practical information about the law while addressing the risks associated with being young in America today. This bulletin describes the law-related education (LRE) initiative recommended for creating a partnership with youth in addressing their own justice in the juvenile system. Through a dynamic process, LRE helps young people learn about the legal system and understand concepts such as justice, freedom, responsibility, equality, and authority. LRE programs in school, community, and juvenile detention settings engage kindergarten through grade 12 youth as partners in the learning process and equip them to face the daily challenges presented by drugs, peer pressure, crime, and violence.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/186161.pdf


Pope, C.E., & Feyerherm, W. (July 1995). Minorities and the Juvenile Justice System: Research Summary. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

Based on a comprehensive research literature analysis on the effects of race on juvenile justice processing, this report shows substantial evidence that race plays a direct and indirect role in the outcome of many juvenile justice decisions. Whether the disparity exists at any point in the juvenile justice system or at some stages and not at others, race effects are clearly pronounced in the juvenile justice system.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/minor.pdf


Roscoe, M., & Morton, R. (April 1994). Disproportionate minority confinement. Fact Sheet Number 11. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

 

 

This fact sheet shows that youth of color are overrepresented at various points in the juvenile justice system. Youth of color are disproportionately represented from arrest to incarceration. In 1992, African-American youth accounted for 49% of the arrests for violent crimes. In 1991, 43% of youth in detention centers were African-American, 35% were White, and 19% were Hispanic.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/fs-9411.txt

Additional Publications Resources at the DMCRC
Snyder, H.N. & Sickmund, M. (1999). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report. Pittsburgh: National Center for Juvenile Justice.

 

 

This sequel report, to the landmark publication Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report (1995), includes statistical information on: juvenile population characteristics; juvenile victims; juvenile offenders; juvenile justice system structure and process; law enforcement and juvenile crime; juvenile courts and juvenile crime; and juveniles in correction facilities.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/toc.html

Ziedenberg, J. (April 2000). Drugs and disparity: The racial impact of Illinois' practice of transferring young drug offenders to adult court. Washington, DC: Building Blocks for Youth.

 

 

The study analyzed data from state criminal justice agencies in Illinois and national corrections databases. It concludes that Illinois' practice of automatically sending 15 and a 16-year-old youth charged with drug crimes to adult court has produced one of the most racially disparate outcomes in the nation. Of the 259 youth automatically transferred to adult court from Cook County last year, only one was White. Over 99% of the Cook County youth automatically transferred to the adult court for drug crimes were non-White.
Available online: http://www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/illinois

Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook for Teachers and Trainers. New York: Routledge.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Task Force of Juvenile Justice Reform. (October 2001). Recommendations for juvenile justice reform. Washington DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Available online:http://www.aacap.org/legislation/articles/everything6.PDF

Caliber Associates. (1996). Evaluation of the disproportionate minority confinement initiative: Iowa final report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Available online:http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/dmc-io.pdf

Caliber Associates. (1996). Evaluation of the disproportionate minority confinement initiative: Oregon final report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Caliber Associates. (1996). Evaluation of the disproportionate minority confinement initiative: North Carolina final report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Caliber Associates. (1996). Evaluation of the disproportionate minority confinement initiative: Florida final report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Caliber Associates. (1996). Evaluation of the disproportionate minority confinement initiative: Arizona final report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement Technical Assistance Manual, 2nd Edition. (April 2000). Community Research Associates, Development Associates, & Development Services Group, Inc.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/dmc_ta_manual/

Hsia, H.M. & Beyer, M. (March 2000). System change through state challenge activities: Approaches and products. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/jjbul2000_03_3/contents.html

Iowa comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders: 1999-2000 report. (September 1999). Des Moines, IA: Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. Iowa Department of Human Rights.

Justice Policy Institute. (January 2002). Reducing disproportionate minority confinement: The Multnomah County, Oregon success story and its implications. Washington DC: Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.
Available online: http://www.cjcj.org/portland/portland_web.html

Leadership Conference on Civil Rights and Leadership Conference Education Fund. Justice on trial: Racial disparities in the American criminal justice system. (May 2000). Washington DC: Leadership Conference on Civil Rights and Leadership Conference Education Fund. [Not Available]

Leiber, M.J. (2002). Disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) of Youth: An analysis of state and federal efforts to address the issue. Crime & Delinquency, 48: 3-45.

Martin, M. (January 2002). Assessment of over-representation of Native American youth in the juvenile justice system. Bismarck, ND: The North Dakota Division of Juvenile Service. North Dakota Juvenile Justice State Advisory Group.
Available online: see links to reports in bar on left.

Musel, S. (1999). Juvenile crime and the welfare of youth. Des Moines, IA: Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. Iowa Department of Human Rights.
Available online: http://www.state.ia.us/government/dhr/cjjp/pdfs/JuvenileRpt99.pdf

Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention. (2000). Race, ethnicity, and serious and violent juvenile offending. Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention.
Available online: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/181202.pdf

Other Publications
Kempf, L. , K., Pope, C.E. &, Feyerherm, W.H. (Eds.). (1995). Minorities in juvenile justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Feyerherm, W. (1993). The status of the states: A review of state materials regarding overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system. Portland, OR: Portland State University.

Feyerherm, William H. (2000). Detention reform and overrepresentation: A successful
synergy. Corrections Management Quarterly, 4, 44-51.

Pope, C.E., & Feyerherm, W. (1992). Minorities and the juvenile justice system: Full report. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Pope, C.E., & Feyerherm, W. (1990). Minority status and juvenile justice processing.
Parts I and II. Criminal Justice Abstracts, 22 (2):327-336 (part I); 22(3): 527-542 (part II).

 
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