113:158           Animal Bones and Archaeology: Introductory Faunal Analysis                                                                 Spring 2004


Tuesday           9:30-10:45       116 Macbride Hall – Lectures

Thursday           9:30-10:45      17 C Macbride Hall – Zooarchaeology Lab


Professor James G. Enloe        

241 Macbride Hall       335-0514         james-enloe@uiowa.edu

Office Hours:                Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 1:00 am - 2:30 pm

            The focus of this course is the use of faunal material in the interpretation of archaeological remains. We will cover skeletal anatomy and identification, taphonomy, determination of population parameters such as age and sex, seasonality, quantification and sampling, recognition of breakage and cutmarks, and interpretations by such means as ethnoarchaeology.

            This course involves lecture presentations and laboratory sessions. You are responsible for all of the material. Lectures will be presented on Tuesdays and discussion and lab work will take place on Thursdays. Several homework exercises will be assigned and graded through the course of the semester.

            As a final project, each student will also perform an identification and analysis of archaeological faunal material, utilizing material provided by me. We will be participating in the analysis of a faunal assemblage from a Roman period temple site in Holland. Each student will undertake analysis of a sample from that assemblage. A report on that analysis will constitute the final term paper. The paper should be 15-20 pages long, with full bibliographic citation. It should include discussion of all of the important topics covered in the semester, and the relevance to the faunal assemblage being analyzed. The final paper is due at the beginning of the final exam period on Tuesday, May 13.

            Evaluation and grades will be based on two examinations (25% each),  on attendance and participation in the lectures and lab sessions, the homework assignments and exercises (25%), and on quality of the final paper (25%).


Required Texts:


Elizabeth J. Reitz and Elizabeth S. Wing

1999    Zooarchaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 48529 0.


Keith D. Gehr

1995    The Bone Book. Bare Bones Publications, Auburn, WA. ISBN 9 990 1 0182 5.


Important Dates:

Mar 2               Midterm examination

May 14.           Final examination and analysis project report due.

Lecture Topics and Readings

Week 1:

Tuesday lecture, Jan 20: Introduction

Reitz and Wing 1999:1-31.

Thursday lab: Identification of mammalian skeleton

Gehr 1995


Week 2:

Tuesday lecture, Jan 27: Skeletal identification, basic procedures

Reitz and Wing 1999:32-84.

Thursday lab: Skeletal identification.


Week 3:

Tuesday lecture, Feb 3: Environmental Reconstruction

Reitz and Wing 1999:85-109, 306-319.

Thursday lab: Skeletal identification. Exercise 1

 Week 4:

Tuesday lecture, Feb 10: Quantification: Taxonmic diversity                                

Reitz and Wing 1999:142-159, 191-202.

Thursday lab: Comparative skeleton preparation. Exercise 2

 Week 5:

Tuesday lecture, Feb 17:  Quantification: Skeletal Part Frequency            

Reitz and Wing 1999:202-238.

Thursday lab: Minumum numbers of individuals. Exercise 3

 Week 6:

Tuesday lecture, Feb 24:  Taphonomy: Geology, Carnivores and Bone Survival

Reitz and Wing 1999:110-141.

Thursday lab: Economic utility. Exercise 4


Week 7:

Tuesday, Mar 2: Midterm examination           

Thursday lab: Taphonomy recognition.


Week 8:

Tuesday lecture, Mar 9: Age and Sex: Calculation                                                          

Reitz and Wing 1999:159-170, 171-191.

 Thursday lab: Sexual dimorphism. Exercise 5

Week 9: Spring Break – no classes

Week 10:

Tuesday lecture, Mar 23: Age and Sex: Interpretation     

Thursday lab: Mortality profile construction. Exercise 6


Week 11:

Tuesday lecture, Mar 30: Society for American Archaeology meetings

            no lecture– lab open for project work Tuesday and Thursday


Week 12:

Tuesday lecture, Apr 6 :  Seasonality

Reitz and Wing 1999:239-278.

Thursday lab: Individual research project work


Week 13:

Tuesday lecture, Apr 13: Bone Transport by Humans: Ethnoarchaeology

Thursday lab: Individual research project work


Week 14:

Tuesday lecture, Apr 20: Human Modification of Bones: Butchering and Cutmarks          

Thursday lab: Butchering. Exercise 7


Week 15:

Tuesday lecture, Apr 27: Domestication

Reitz and Wing 1999:279-305.

Thursday lab: Individual research project work


Week 16:

Tuesday lecture, May 4: Interpretation and Reasoning                             Course evaluations.

Reitz and Wing 1999:320-334.

Thursday lab: Individual research project work


Week 17: Exam Week               Final Examination: Friday, May 14, 2:15 pm, Papers due